APT33

APT33 is a suspected Iranian threat group that has carried out operations since at least 2013. The group has targeted organizations across multiple industries in the United States, Saudi Arabia, and South Korea, with a particular interest in the aviation and energy sectors. [1] [2]

ID: G0064
Associated Groups: HOLMIUM, Elfin
Version: 1.3
Created: 18 April 2018
Last Modified: 01 July 2020

Associated Group Descriptions

Name Description
HOLMIUM [5]
Elfin [3]

Techniques Used

Domain ID Name Use
Enterprise T1071 .001 Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols

APT33 has used HTTP for command and control.[3]

Enterprise T1560 .001 Archive Collected Data: Archive via Utility

APT33 has used WinRAR to compress data prior to exfil.[3]

Enterprise T1547 .001 Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder

APT33 has deployed a tool known as DarkComet to the Startup folder of a victim, and used Registry run keys to gain persistence.[3][5]

Enterprise T1110 .003 Brute Force: Password Spraying

APT33 has used password spraying to gain access to target systems.[4][5]

Enterprise T1059 .001 Command and Scripting Interpreter: PowerShell

APT33 has utilized PowerShell to download files from the C2 server and run various scripts. [3][5]

.005 Command and Scripting Interpreter: Visual Basic

APT33 has used VBScript to initiate the delivery of payloads.[5]

Enterprise T1555 Credentials from Password Stores

APT33 has used a variety of publicly available tools like LaZagne to gather credentials.[3][4]

.003 Credentials from Web Browsers

APT33 has used a variety of publicly available tools like LaZagne to gather credentials.[3][4]

Enterprise T1132 .001 Data Encoding: Standard Encoding

APT33 has used base64 to encode command and control traffic.[4]

Enterprise T1573 .001 Encrypted Channel: Symmetric Cryptography

APT33 has used AES for encryption of command and control traffic.[4]

Enterprise T1546 .003 Event Triggered Execution: Windows Management Instrumentation Event Subscription

APT33 has attempted to use WMI event subscriptions to establish persistence on compromised hosts.[5]

Enterprise T1048 .003 Exfiltration Over Alternative Protocol: Exfiltration Over Unencrypted/Obfuscated Non-C2 Protocol

APT33 has used FTP to exfiltrate files (separately from the C2 channel).[3]

Enterprise T1203 Exploitation for Client Execution

APT33 has attempted to exploit a known vulnerability in WinRAR (CVE-2018-20250), and attempted to gain remote code execution via a security bypass vulnerability (CVE-2017-11774).[3][5]

Enterprise T1068 Exploitation for Privilege Escalation

APT33 has used a publicly available exploit for CVE-2017-0213 to escalate privileges on a local system.[4]

Enterprise T1105 Ingress Tool Transfer

APT33 has downloaded additional files and programs from its C2 server.[3][5]

Enterprise T1040 Network Sniffing

APT33 has used SniffPass to collect credentials by sniffing network traffic.[3]

Enterprise T1571 Non-Standard Port

APT33 has used HTTP over TCP ports 808 and 880 for command and control.[3]

Enterprise T1027 Obfuscated Files or Information

APT33 has used base64 to encode payloads.[4]

Enterprise T1003 .001 OS Credential Dumping: LSASS Memory

APT33 has used a variety of publicly available tools like LaZagne, Mimikatz, and ProcDump to dump credentials.[3][4]

.004 OS Credential Dumping: LSA Secrets

APT33 has used a variety of publicly available tools like LaZagne to gather credentials.[3][4]

.005 OS Credential Dumping: Cached Domain Credentials

APT33 has used a variety of publicly available tools like LaZagne to gather credentials.[3][4]

Enterprise T1566 .002 Phishing: Spearphishing Link

APT33 has sent spearphishing emails containing links to .hta files.[1][3]

.001 Phishing: Spearphishing Attachment

APT33 has sent spearphishing e-mails with archive attachments.[5]

Enterprise T1053 .005 Scheduled Task/Job: Scheduled Task

APT33 has created a scheduled task to execute a .vbe file multiple times a day.[3]

Enterprise T1552 .001 Unsecured Credentials: Credentials In Files

APT33 has used a variety of publicly available tools like LaZagne to gather credentials.[3][4]

.006 Unsecured Credentials: Group Policy Preferences

APT33 has used a variety of publicly available tools like Gpppassword to gather credentials.[3][4]

Enterprise T1204 .001 User Execution: Malicious Link

APT33 has lured users to click links to malicious HTML applications delivered via spearphishing emails.[1][3]

.002 User Execution: Malicious File

APT33 has used malicious e-mail attachments to lure victims into executing malware.[5]

Enterprise T1078 Valid Accounts

APT33 has used valid accounts for initial access and privilege escalation.[2][4]

.004 Cloud Accounts

APT33 has used compromised Office 365 accounts in tandem with Ruler in an attempt to gain control of endpoints.[5]

Software

ID Name References Techniques
S0129 AutoIt backdoor

[3]

Abuse Elevation Control Mechanism: Bypass User Access Control, Command and Scripting Interpreter: PowerShell, Data Encoding: Standard Encoding, File and Directory Discovery
S0363 Empire

[4][3]

Abuse Elevation Control Mechanism: Bypass User Access Control, Access Token Manipulation: Create Process with Token, Access Token Manipulation: SID-History Injection, Access Token Manipulation, Account Discovery: Domain Account, Account Discovery: Local Account, Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols, Archive Collected Data, Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Security Support Provider, Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Shortcut Modification, Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder, Browser Bookmark Discovery, Clipboard Data, Command and Scripting Interpreter: Windows Command Shell, Command and Scripting Interpreter, Command and Scripting Interpreter: PowerShell, Commonly Used Port, Create Account: Local Account, Create Account: Domain Account, Create or Modify System Process: Windows Service, Credentials from Password Stores: Credentials from Web Browsers, Domain Trust Discovery, Email Collection: Local Email Collection, Encrypted Channel: Asymmetric Cryptography, Event Triggered Execution: Accessibility Features, Exfiltration Over C2 Channel, Exfiltration Over Web Service: Exfiltration to Cloud Storage, Exfiltration Over Web Service: Exfiltration to Code Repository, Exploitation for Privilege Escalation, Exploitation of Remote Services, File and Directory Discovery, Group Policy Modification, Hijack Execution Flow: DLL Search Order Hijacking, Hijack Execution Flow: Path Interception by PATH Environment Variable, Hijack Execution Flow: Path Interception by Search Order Hijacking, Hijack Execution Flow: Path Interception by Unquoted Path, Indicator Removal on Host: Timestomp, Ingress Tool Transfer, Input Capture: Keylogging, Input Capture: Credential API Hooking, Man-in-the-Middle: LLMNR/NBT-NS Poisoning and SMB Relay, Native API, Network Service Scanning, Network Share Discovery, Network Sniffing, Obfuscated Files or Information, OS Credential Dumping: LSASS Memory, Process Discovery, Process Injection, Remote Services: Distributed Component Object Model, Remote Services: SSH, Scheduled Task/Job: Scheduled Task, Screen Capture, Software Discovery: Security Software Discovery, Steal or Forge Kerberos Tickets: Golden Ticket, Steal or Forge Kerberos Tickets: Kerberoasting, Steal or Forge Kerberos Tickets: Silver Ticket, System Information Discovery, System Network Configuration Discovery, System Network Connections Discovery, System Services: Service Execution, Trusted Developer Utilities Proxy Execution: MSBuild, Unsecured Credentials: Credentials In Files, Unsecured Credentials: Private Keys, Use Alternate Authentication Material: Pass the Hash, Video Capture, Web Service: Bidirectional Communication, Windows Management Instrumentation
S0095 FTP

[3]

Commonly Used Port, Exfiltration Over Alternative Protocol: Exfiltration Over Unencrypted/Obfuscated Non-C2 Protocol
S0349 LaZagne

[3]

Credentials from Password Stores, Credentials from Password Stores: Credentials from Web Browsers, Credentials from Password Stores: Keychain, OS Credential Dumping: LSASS Memory, OS Credential Dumping: LSA Secrets, OS Credential Dumping: Cached Domain Credentials, OS Credential Dumping: Proc Filesystem, OS Credential Dumping: /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow, Unsecured Credentials: Credentials In Files
S0002 Mimikatz

[3]

Access Token Manipulation: SID-History Injection, Account Manipulation, Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Security Support Provider, Credentials from Password Stores: Credentials from Web Browsers, Credentials from Password Stores, OS Credential Dumping: LSASS Memory, OS Credential Dumping: DCSync, OS Credential Dumping: Security Account Manager, OS Credential Dumping: LSA Secrets, Rogue Domain Controller, Steal or Forge Kerberos Tickets: Silver Ticket, Steal or Forge Kerberos Tickets: Golden Ticket, Unsecured Credentials: Private Keys, Use Alternate Authentication Material: Pass the Hash, Use Alternate Authentication Material: Pass the Ticket
S0336 NanoCore

[2]

Audio Capture, Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder, Command and Scripting Interpreter: Visual Basic, Command and Scripting Interpreter: Windows Command Shell, Encrypted Channel: Symmetric Cryptography, Impair Defenses: Disable or Modify Tools, Impair Defenses: Disable or Modify System Firewall, Ingress Tool Transfer, Input Capture: Keylogging, Modify Registry, Obfuscated Files or Information, System Network Configuration Discovery, Video Capture
S0039 Net

[3]

Account Discovery: Local Account, Account Discovery: Domain Account, Create Account: Local Account, Create Account: Domain Account, Indicator Removal on Host: Network Share Connection Removal, Network Share Discovery, Password Policy Discovery, Permission Groups Discovery: Local Groups, Permission Groups Discovery: Domain Groups, Remote Services: SMB/Windows Admin Shares, Remote System Discovery, System Network Connections Discovery, System Service Discovery, System Services: Service Execution, System Time Discovery
S0198 NETWIRE

[1][2]

Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder, Input Capture: Keylogging, Screen Capture, Subvert Trust Controls: Code Signing, System Information Discovery
S0378 PoshC2

[4][3]

Abuse Elevation Control Mechanism: Bypass User Access Control, Access Token Manipulation: Create Process with Token, Access Token Manipulation, Account Discovery: Domain Account, Account Discovery: Local Account, Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols, Archive Collected Data: Archive via Utility, Automated Collection, Brute Force, Domain Trust Discovery, Event Triggered Execution: Windows Management Instrumentation Event Subscription, Exploitation for Privilege Escalation, Exploitation of Remote Services, File and Directory Discovery, Input Capture: Keylogging, Man-in-the-Middle: LLMNR/NBT-NS Poisoning and SMB Relay, Network Service Scanning, Network Sniffing, OS Credential Dumping: LSASS Memory, Password Policy Discovery, Permission Groups Discovery: Local Groups, Process Injection, Proxy, System Information Discovery, System Network Configuration Discovery, System Network Connections Discovery, System Service Discovery, System Services: Service Execution, Unsecured Credentials: Credentials In Files, Use Alternate Authentication Material: Pass the Hash, Windows Management Instrumentation
S0194 PowerSploit

[4]

Access Token Manipulation, Account Discovery: Local Account, Audio Capture, Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Security Support Provider, Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder, Command and Scripting Interpreter: PowerShell, Create or Modify System Process: Windows Service, Credentials from Password Stores, Data from Local System, Domain Trust Discovery, Hijack Execution Flow: DLL Search Order Hijacking, Hijack Execution Flow: Path Interception by PATH Environment Variable, Hijack Execution Flow: Path Interception by Search Order Hijacking, Hijack Execution Flow: Path Interception by Unquoted Path, Input Capture: Keylogging, Obfuscated Files or Information, Obfuscated Files or Information: Indicator Removal from Tools, OS Credential Dumping: LSASS Memory, Path Interception, Process Discovery, Process Injection: Portable Executable Injection, Process Injection: Dynamic-link Library Injection, Query Registry, Scheduled Task/Job: Scheduled Task, Screen Capture, Steal or Forge Kerberos Tickets: Kerberoasting, Unsecured Credentials: Credentials in Registry, Unsecured Credentials: Group Policy Preferences, Windows Management Instrumentation
S0371 POWERTON

[4][5]

Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols, Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder, Command and Scripting Interpreter: PowerShell, Commonly Used Port, Encrypted Channel: Symmetric Cryptography, Event Triggered Execution: Windows Management Instrumentation Event Subscription, OS Credential Dumping: Security Account Manager
S0192 Pupy

[4]

Abuse Elevation Control Mechanism: Bypass User Access Control, Access Token Manipulation: Token Impersonation/Theft, Account Discovery: Local Account, Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols, Archive Collected Data: Archive via Utility, Audio Capture, Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder, Command and Scripting Interpreter: PowerShell, Command and Scripting Interpreter: Python, Create Account: Local Account, Create Account: Domain Account, Create or Modify System Process: Systemd Service, Credentials from Password Stores, Credentials from Password Stores: Credentials from Web Browsers, Email Collection: Local Email Collection, Encrypted Channel: Asymmetric Cryptography, Exfiltration Over C2 Channel, File and Directory Discovery, Indicator Removal on Host: Clear Windows Event Logs, Ingress Tool Transfer, Input Capture: Keylogging, Man-in-the-Middle: LLMNR/NBT-NS Poisoning and SMB Relay, Network Service Scanning, Network Share Discovery, OS Credential Dumping: LSASS Memory, OS Credential Dumping: LSA Secrets, OS Credential Dumping: Cached Domain Credentials, Process Discovery, Process Injection: Dynamic-link Library Injection, Remote Services: Remote Desktop Protocol, Screen Capture, System Information Discovery, System Network Configuration Discovery, System Network Connections Discovery, System Owner/User Discovery, System Services: Service Execution, Unsecured Credentials: Credentials In Files, Use Alternate Authentication Material: Pass the Ticket, Video Capture, Virtualization/Sandbox Evasion: System Checks
S0358 Ruler

[4][5]

Account Discovery: Email Account, Office Application Startup: Outlook Home Page, Office Application Startup: Outlook Rules, Office Application Startup: Outlook Forms
S0380 StoneDrill

[1]

Command and Scripting Interpreter: Visual Basic, Data Destruction, Disk Wipe: Disk Content Wipe, Disk Wipe: Disk Structure Wipe, Indicator Removal on Host: File Deletion, Ingress Tool Transfer, Obfuscated Files or Information, Process Injection, Query Registry, Screen Capture, Software Discovery: Security Software Discovery, System Information Discovery, System Time Discovery, Virtualization/Sandbox Evasion, Windows Management Instrumentation
S0199 TURNEDUP

[1][2][3]

Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder, Command and Scripting Interpreter: Windows Command Shell, Ingress Tool Transfer, Process Injection: Asynchronous Procedure Call, Screen Capture, System Information Discovery

References