Dragonfly is a cyber espionage group that has been attributed to Russia's Federal Security Service (FSB) Center 16. Active since at least 2010, Dragonfly has targeted defense and aviation companies, government entities, companies related to industrial control systems, and critical infrastructure sectors worldwide through supply chain, spearphishing, and drive-by compromise attacks.
|Enterprise||T1087||.002||Account Discovery: Domain Account||
Dragonfly has used batch scripts to enumerate users on a victim domain controller.
Dragonfly has added newly created accounts to the administrators group to maintain elevated access.
|Enterprise||T1583||.001||Acquire Infrastructure: Domains||
Dragonfly has registered domains for targeting intended victims.
|.003||Acquire Infrastructure: Virtual Private Server||
Dragonfly has acquired VPS infrastructure for use in malicious campaigns.
|Enterprise||T1595||.002||Active Scanning: Vulnerability Scanning||
Dragonfly has scanned targeted systems for vulnerable Citrix and Microsoft Exchange services.
|Enterprise||T1071||Application Layer Protocol|
|Enterprise||T1560||Archive Collected Data||
Dragonfly has compressed data into .zip files prior to exfiltration.
|Enterprise||T1547||.001||Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder||
Dragonfly has added the registry value ntdll to the Registry Run key to establish persistence.
Dragonfly has attempted to brute force credentials to gain access.
Dragonfly has dropped and executed tools used for password cracking, including Hydra and CrackMapExec.
|Enterprise||T1059||Command and Scripting Interpreter|
|.003||Windows Command Shell||
Dragonfly has used various types of scripting to perform operations, including batch scripts.
Dragonfly has used various types of scripting to perform operations, including Python scripts. The group was observed installing Python 2.7 on a victim.
|Enterprise||T1584||.004||Compromise Infrastructure: Server||
Dragonfly has compromised legitimate websites to host C2 and malware modules.
|Enterprise||T1136||.001||Create Account: Local Account||
Dragonfly has created accounts on victims, including administrator accounts, some of which appeared to be tailored to each individual staging target.
|Enterprise||T1005||Data from Local System|
|Enterprise||T1074||.001||Data Staged: Local Data Staging||
Dragonfly has created a directory named "out" in the user's %AppData% folder and copied files to it.
Dragonfly has compromised targets via strategic web compromise (SWC) utilizing a custom exploit kit.
|Enterprise||T1114||.002||Email Collection: Remote Email Collection||
Dragonfly has accessed email accounts using Outlook Web Access.
|Enterprise||T1190||Exploit Public-Facing Application||
Dragonfly has conducted SQL injection attacks, exploited vulnerabilities CVE-2019-19781 and CVE-2020-0688 for Citrix and MS Exchange, and CVE-2018-13379 for Fortinet VPNs.
|Enterprise||T1203||Exploitation for Client Execution||
Dragonfly has exploited CVE-2011-0611 in Adobe Flash Player to gain execution on a targeted system.
|Enterprise||T1210||Exploitation of Remote Services||
Dragonfly has exploited a Windows Netlogon vulnerability (CVE-2020-1472) to obtain access to Windows Active Directory servers.
|Enterprise||T1133||External Remote Services||
Dragonfly has used VPNs and Outlook Web Access (OWA) to maintain access to victim networks.
|Enterprise||T1083||File and Directory Discovery||
Dragonfly has used a batch script to gather folder and file names from victim hosts.
Dragonfly has gathered hashed user credentials over SMB using spearphishing attachments with external resource links and by modifying .LNK file icon resources to collect credentials from virtualized systems.
|Enterprise||T1591||.002||Gather Victim Org Information: Business Relationships||
Dragonfly has collected open source information to identify relationships between organizations for targeting purposes.
|Enterprise||T1564||.002||Hide Artifacts: Hidden Users||
Dragonfly has modified the Registry to hide created user accounts.
|Enterprise||T1562||.004||Impair Defenses: Disable or Modify System Firewall||
Dragonfly has disabled host-based firewalls. The group has also globally opened port 3389.
|Enterprise||T1070||.001||Indicator Removal: Clear Windows Event Logs||
Dragonfly has cleared Windows event logs and other logs produced by tools they used, including system, security, terminal services, remote services, and audit logs. The actors also deleted specific Registry keys.
|.004||Indicator Removal: File Deletion||
Dragonfly has deleted many of its files used during operations as part of cleanup, including removing applications and deleting screenshots.
|Enterprise||T1105||Ingress Tool Transfer||
Dragonfly has copied and installed tools for operations once in the victim environment.
Dragonfly has created accounts disguised as legitimate backup and service accounts as well as an email administration account.
Dragonfly has modified the Registry to perform multiple techniques through the use of Reg.
|Enterprise||T1135||Network Share Discovery||
Dragonfly has identified and browsed file servers in the victim network, sometimes , viewing files pertaining to ICS or Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems.
|Enterprise||T1588||.002||Obtain Capabilities: Tool||
Dragonfly has obtained and used tools such as Mimikatz, CrackMapExec, and PsExec.
|Enterprise||T1003||.002||OS Credential Dumping: Security Account Manager||
Dragonfly has dropped and executed SecretsDump to dump password hashes.
|.003||OS Credential Dumping: NTDS||
Dragonfly has dropped and executed SecretsDump to dump password hashes. They also obtained ntds.dit from domain controllers.
|.004||OS Credential Dumping: LSA Secrets||
Dragonfly has dropped and executed SecretsDump to dump password hashes.
|Enterprise||T1069||.002||Permission Groups Discovery: Domain Groups||
Dragonfly has used batch scripts to enumerate administrators and users in the domain.
|Enterprise||T1566||.001||Phishing: Spearphishing Attachment||
Dragonfly has sent emails with malicious attachments to gain initial access.
|Enterprise||T1598||.002||Phishing for Information: Spearphishing Attachment||
Dragonfly has used spearphishing with Microsoft Office attachments to enable harvesting of user credentials.
|.003||Phishing for Information: Spearphishing Link||
Dragonfly has used spearphishing with PDF attachments containing malicious links that redirected to credential harvesting websites.
Dragonfly has queried the Registry to identify victim information.
|Enterprise||T1021||.001||Remote Services: Remote Desktop Protocol|
|Enterprise||T1018||Remote System Discovery||
Dragonfly has likely obtained a list of hosts in the victim environment.
|Enterprise||T1053||.005||Scheduled Task/Job: Scheduled Task||
Dragonfly has used scheduled tasks to automatically log out of created accounts every 8 hours as well as to execute malicious files.
Dragonfly has performed screen captures of victims, including by using a tool, scr.exe (which matched the hash of ScreenUtil).
|Enterprise||T1505||.003||Server Software Component: Web Shell||
Dragonfly has commonly created Web shells on victims' publicly accessible email and web servers, which they used to maintain access to a victim network and download additional malicious files.
|Enterprise||T1608||.004||Stage Capabilities: Drive-by Target||
Dragonfly has compromised websites to redirect traffic and to host exploit kits.
|Enterprise||T1195||.002||Supply Chain Compromise: Compromise Software Supply Chain||
Dragonfly has placed trojanized installers for control system software on legitimate vendor app stores.
|Enterprise||T1016||System Network Configuration Discovery||
Dragonfly has used batch scripts to enumerate network information, including information about trusts, zones, and the domain.
|Enterprise||T1033||System Owner/User Discovery|
Dragonfly has injected SMB URLs into malicious Word spearphishing attachments to initiate Forced Authentication.
|Enterprise||T1204||.002||User Execution: Malicious File||
Dragonfly has used various forms of spearphishing in attempts to get users to open malicious attachments.
Dragonfly has compromised user credentials and used valid accounts for operations.
Dragonfly utilized watering hole attacks on energy sector websites by injecting a redirect iframe to deliver Backdoor.Oldrea or Trojan.Karagany. 
|ICS||T0862||Supply Chain Compromise||
Dragonfly trojanized legitimate ICS equipment providers software packages available for download on their websites.
|S0093||Backdoor.Oldrea||||Account Discovery: Email Account, Archive Collected Data, Automated Collection, Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder, Credentials from Password Stores: Credentials from Web Browsers, Data Encoding: Standard Encoding, Denial of Service, File and Directory Discovery, Indicator Removal: File Deletion, Ingress Tool Transfer, Network Service Discovery, Point & Tag Identification, Process Discovery, Process Injection, Remote System Discovery, Remote System Discovery, Remote System Information Discovery, Spearphishing Attachment, Supply Chain Compromise, System Binary Proxy Execution: Rundll32, System Information Discovery, System Network Configuration Discovery, System Owner/User Discovery, User Execution|
|S0488||CrackMapExec||||Account Discovery: Domain Account, Brute Force, Brute Force: Password Guessing, Brute Force: Password Spraying, Command and Scripting Interpreter: PowerShell, File and Directory Discovery, Modify Registry, Network Share Discovery, OS Credential Dumping: LSA Secrets, OS Credential Dumping: NTDS, OS Credential Dumping: Security Account Manager, Password Policy Discovery, Permission Groups Discovery: Domain Groups, Remote System Discovery, Scheduled Task/Job: At, System Information Discovery, System Network Configuration Discovery, System Network Connections Discovery, Use Alternate Authentication Material: Pass the Hash, Windows Management Instrumentation|
|S0357||Impacket||||Adversary-in-the-Middle: LLMNR/NBT-NS Poisoning and SMB Relay, Network Sniffing, OS Credential Dumping: NTDS, OS Credential Dumping: Security Account Manager, OS Credential Dumping: LSA Secrets, OS Credential Dumping: LSASS Memory, Steal or Forge Kerberos Tickets: Kerberoasting, System Services: Service Execution, Windows Management Instrumentation|
|S0500||MCMD||||Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols, Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder, Command and Scripting Interpreter: Windows Command Shell, Data from Local System, Hide Artifacts: Hidden Window, Indicator Removal: Clear Persistence, Ingress Tool Transfer, Masquerading: Match Legitimate Name or Location, Obfuscated Files or Information, Scheduled Task/Job: Scheduled Task|
|S0002||Mimikatz||||Access Token Manipulation: SID-History Injection, Account Manipulation, Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Security Support Provider, Credentials from Password Stores, Credentials from Password Stores: Windows Credential Manager, Credentials from Password Stores: Credentials from Web Browsers, OS Credential Dumping: LSASS Memory, OS Credential Dumping: DCSync, OS Credential Dumping: Security Account Manager, OS Credential Dumping: LSA Secrets, Rogue Domain Controller, Steal or Forge Authentication Certificates, Steal or Forge Kerberos Tickets: Silver Ticket, Steal or Forge Kerberos Tickets: Golden Ticket, Unsecured Credentials: Private Keys, Use Alternate Authentication Material: Pass the Ticket, Use Alternate Authentication Material: Pass the Hash|
|S0039||Net||||Account Discovery: Domain Account, Account Discovery: Local Account, Create Account: Local Account, Create Account: Domain Account, Indicator Removal: Network Share Connection Removal, Network Share Discovery, Password Policy Discovery, Permission Groups Discovery: Local Groups, Permission Groups Discovery: Domain Groups, Remote Services: SMB/Windows Admin Shares, Remote System Discovery, System Network Connections Discovery, System Service Discovery, System Services: Service Execution, System Time Discovery|
|S0108||netsh||||Event Triggered Execution: Netsh Helper DLL, Impair Defenses: Disable or Modify System Firewall, Proxy, Software Discovery: Security Software Discovery|
|S0029||PsExec||||Create Account: Domain Account, Create or Modify System Process: Windows Service, Lateral Tool Transfer, Remote Services: SMB/Windows Admin Shares, System Services: Service Execution|
|S0075||Reg||||Modify Registry, Query Registry, Unsecured Credentials: Credentials in Registry|
|S0094||Trojan.Karagany||||Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols, Application Window Discovery, Boot or Logon Autostart Execution: Registry Run Keys / Startup Folder, Command and Scripting Interpreter: Windows Command Shell, Credentials from Password Stores: Credentials from Web Browsers, Data Staged: Local Data Staging, Encrypted Channel: Asymmetric Cryptography, File and Directory Discovery, Indicator Removal: File Deletion, Ingress Tool Transfer, Input Capture: Keylogging, Obfuscated Files or Information: Software Packing, Obfuscated Files or Information, OS Credential Dumping, Process Discovery, Process Injection: Thread Execution Hijacking, Screen Capture, System Information Discovery, System Network Configuration Discovery, System Network Connections Discovery, System Owner/User Discovery, Virtualization/Sandbox Evasion: System Checks|