Audit

Perform audits or scans of systems, permissions, insecure software, insecure configurations, etc. to identify potential weaknesses.

ID: M1047
Version: 1.1
Created: 11 June 2019
Last Modified: 31 March 2020

Techniques Addressed by Mitigation

Domain ID Name Use
Enterprise T1548 Abuse Elevation Control Mechanism

Check for common UAC bypass weaknesses on Windows systems to be aware of the risk posture and address issues where appropriate.[7]

.002 Bypass User Access Control

Check for common UAC bypass weaknesses on Windows systems to be aware of the risk posture and address issues where appropriate.[7]

Enterprise T1560 Archive Collected Data

System scans can be performed to identify unauthorized archival utilities.

.001 Archive via Utility

System scans can be performed to identify unauthorized archival utilities.

Enterprise T1176 Browser Extensions

Ensure extensions that are installed are the intended ones as many malicious extensions will masquerade as legitimate ones.

Enterprise T1059 .006 Command and Scripting Interpreter: Python

Inventory systems for unauthorized Python installations.

Enterprise T1543 Create or Modify System Process

Use auditing tools capable of detecting privilege and service abuse opportunities on systems within an enterprise and correct them.

.003 Windows Service

Use auditing tools capable of detecting privilege and service abuse opportunities on systems within an enterprise and correct them.

Enterprise T1530 Data from Cloud Storage Object

Frequently check permissions on cloud storage to ensure proper permissions are set to deny open or unprivileged access to resources.[4]

Enterprise T1213 Data from Information Repositories

Consider periodic review of accounts and privileges for critical and sensitive repositories.

.001 Confluence

Consider periodic review of accounts and privileges for critical and sensitive Confluence repositories.

.002 Sharepoint

Consider periodic review of accounts and privileges for critical and sensitive SharePoint repositories.

Enterprise T1482 Domain Trust Discovery

Map the trusts within existing domains/forests and keep trust relationships to a minimum.

Enterprise T1114 Email Collection

Enterprise email solutions have monitoring mechanisms that may include the ability to audit auto-forwarding rules on a regular basis.

In an Exchange environment, Administrators can use Get-InboxRule to discover and remove potentially malicious auto-forwarding rules.[3]

.003 Email Forwarding Rule

Enterprise email solutions have monitoring mechanisms that may include the ability to audit auto-forwarding rules on a regular basis.

In an Exchange environment, Administrators can use Get-InboxRule to discover and remove potentially malicious auto-forwarding rules.[3]

Enterprise T1546 .006 Event Triggered Execution: LC_LOAD_DYLIB Addition

Binaries can also be baselined for what dynamic libraries they require, and if an app requires a new dynamic library that wasn\u2019t included as part of an update, it should be investigated.

Enterprise T1484 Group Policy Modification

Identify and correct GPO permissions abuse opportunities (ex: GPO modification privileges) using auditing tools such as Bloodhound (version 1.5.1 and later)[1].

Enterprise T1574 Hijack Execution Flow

Use auditing tools capable of detecting hijacking opportunities on systems within an enterprise and correct them. Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for hijacking weaknesses.[2]

Use the program sxstrace.exe that is included with Windows along with manual inspection to check manifest files for side-loading vulnerabilities in software.

Find and eliminate path interception weaknesses in program configuration files, scripts, the PATH environment variable, services, and in shortcuts by surrounding PATH variables with quotation marks when functions allow for them. Be aware of the search order Windows uses for executing or loading binaries and use fully qualified paths wherever appropriate.

Clean up old Windows Registry keys when software is uninstalled to avoid keys with no associated legitimate binaries. Periodically search for and correct or report path interception weaknesses on systems that may have been introduced using custom or available tools that report software using insecure path configurations.[9][10][11]

.010 Services File Permissions Weakness

Use auditing tools capable of detecting file system permissions abuse opportunities on systems within an enterprise and correct them. Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for service file system permissions weaknesses.[2]

.005 Executable Installer File Permissions Weakness

Use auditing tools capable of detecting file system permissions abuse opportunities on systems within an enterprise and correct them. Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for service file system permissions weaknesses.[2]

.009 Path Interception by Unquoted Path

Find and eliminate path interception weaknesses in program configuration files, scripts, the PATH environment variable, services, and in shortcuts by surrounding PATH variables with quotation marks when functions allow for them. Be aware of the search order Windows uses for executing or loading binaries and use fully qualified paths wherever appropriate.

Clean up old Windows Registry keys when software is uninstalled to avoid keys with no associated legitimate binaries. Periodically search for and correct or report path interception weaknesses on systems that may have been introduced using custom or available tools that report software using insecure path configurations.[9][10][11]

.007 Path Interception by PATH Environment Variable

Find and eliminate path interception weaknesses in program configuration files, scripts, the PATH environment variable, services, and in shortcuts by surrounding PATH variables with quotation marks when functions allow for them. Be aware of the search order Windows uses for executing or loading binaries and use fully qualified paths wherever appropriate.

Clean up old Windows Registry keys when software is uninstalled to avoid keys with no associated legitimate binaries. Periodically search for and correct or report path interception weaknesses on systems that may have been introduced using custom or available tools that report software using insecure path configurations.[9][10][11]

.008 Path Interception by Search Order Hijacking

Find and eliminate path interception weaknesses in program configuration files, scripts, the PATH environment variable, services, and in shortcuts by surrounding PATH variables with quotation marks when functions allow for them. Be aware of the search order Windows uses for executing or loading binaries and use fully qualified paths wherever appropriate.

Clean up old Windows Registry keys when software is uninstalled to avoid keys with no associated legitimate binaries. Periodically search for and correct or report path interception weaknesses on systems that may have been introduced using custom or available tools that report software using insecure path configurations.[9][10][11]

.001 DLL Search Order Hijacking

Use auditing tools capable of detecting DLL search order hijacking opportunities on systems within an enterprise and correct them. Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for DLL hijacking weaknesses.[2]

.002 DLL Side-Loading

Use the program sxstrace.exe that is included with Windows along with manual inspection to check manifest files for side-loading vulnerabilities in software.

Enterprise T1562 .007 Impair Defenses: Disable or Modify Cloud Firewall

Routinely check account role permissions to ensure only expected users and roles have permission to modify cloud firewalls.

Enterprise T1525 Implant Container Image

Periodically check the integrity of images and containers used in cloud deployments to ensure they have not been modified to include malicious software.

Enterprise T1578 Modify Cloud Compute Infrastructure

Routinely monitor user permissions to ensure only the expected users have the capability to modify cloud compute infrastructure components.

.001 Create Snapshot

Routinely check user permissions to ensure only the expected users have the capability to create snapshots and backups.

.002 Create Cloud Instance

Routinely check user permissions to ensure only the expected users have the capability to create new instances.

.003 Delete Cloud Instance

Routinely check user permissions to ensure only the expected users have the capability to delete new instances.

Enterprise T1563 .002 Remote Service Session Hijacking: RDP Hijacking

Audit the Remote Desktop Users group membership regularly. Remove unnecessary accounts and groups from Remote Desktop Users groups.

Enterprise T1021 .001 Remote Services: Remote Desktop Protocol

Audit the Remote Desktop Users group membership regularly. Remove unnecessary accounts and groups from Remote Desktop Users groups.

.005 Remote Services: VNC

Inventory workstations for unauthorized VNC server software.

Enterprise T1053 Scheduled Task/Job

Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for permission weaknesses in scheduled tasks that could be used to escalate privileges. [2]

.002 At (Windows)

Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for permission weaknesses in scheduled tasks that could be used to escalate privileges. [2] Windows operating system also creates a registry key specifically associated with the creation of a scheduled task on the destination host at: Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Schedule\TaskCache\Tree\At1. [5]

.005 Scheduled Task

Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for permission weaknesses in scheduled tasks that could be used to escalate privileges. [2]

.001 At (Linux)

Scheduled tasks using at can be audited locally, or through centrally collected logging, using syslog, or auditd events from the host. [6]

.004 Launchd

Audit logging for launchd events in MacOS can be reviewed or centrally collected using multiple options, such as syslog, OpenBSM, or OSquery.

.003 Cron

Review changes to the cron schedule. cron execution can be reviewed within the /var/log directory. To validate the location of the cron log file, check the syslog config at /etc/rsyslog.conf or /etc/syslog.conf

Enterprise T1505 Server Software Component

Regularly check component software on critical services that adversaries may target for persistence to verify the integrity of the systems and identify if unexpected changes have been made.

.002 Transport Agent

Regularly check component software on critical services that adversaries may target for persistence to verify the integrity of the systems and identify if unexpected changes have been made.

.001 SQL Stored Procedures

Regularly check component software on critical services that adversaries may target for persistence to verify the integrity of the systems and identify if unexpected changes have been made.

Enterprise T1528 Steal Application Access Token

Administrators should perform an audit of all OAuth applications and the permissions they have been granted to access organizational data. This should be done extensively on all applications in order to establish a baseline, followed up on with periodic audits of new or updated applications. Suspicious applications should be investigated and removed.

Enterprise T1552 Unsecured Credentials

Preemptively search for files containing passwords or other credentials and take actions to reduce the exposure risk when found.

.001 Credentials In Files

Preemptively search for files containing passwords and take actions to reduce the exposure risk when found.

.002 Credentials in Registry

Proactively search for credentials within the Registry and attempt to remediate the risk.

.004 Private Keys

Ensure only authorized keys are allowed access to critical resources and audit access lists regularly.

.006 Group Policy Preferences

Search SYSVOL for any existing GGPs that may contain credentials and remove them.[8]

Enterprise T1550 .001 Use Alternate Authentication Material: Application Access Token

Administrators can leverage audit tools to monitor actions that can be conducted as a result of OAuth 2.0 access. For instance, audit reports enable admins to identify privilege escalation actions such as role creations or policy modifications, which could be actions performed after initial access.

References