Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols

Adversaries may communicate using application layer protocols associated with web traffic to avoid detection/network filtering by blending in with existing traffic. Commands to the remote system, and often the results of those commands, will be embedded within the protocol traffic between the client and server.

Protocols such as HTTP and HTTPS that carry web traffic may be very common in environments. HTTP/S packets have many fields and headers in which data can be concealed. An adversary may abuse these protocols to communicate with systems under their control within a victim network while also mimicking normal, expected traffic.

ID: T1071.001
Sub-technique of:  T1071
Platforms: Linux, Windows, macOS
Version: 1.0
Created: 15 March 2020
Last Modified: 26 March 2020

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
S0066 3PARA RAT

3PARA RAT uses HTTP for command and control.[1]

S0065 4H RAT

4H RAT uses HTTP for command and control.[1]

S0469 ABK

ABK has the ability to use HTTP in communications with C2.[2]

S1028 Action RAT

Action RAT can use HTTP to communicate with C2 servers.[3]

S0045 ADVSTORESHELL

ADVSTORESHELL connects to port 80 of a C2 server using Wininet API. Data is exchanged via HTTP POSTs.[4]

S0331 Agent Tesla

Agent Tesla has used HTTP for C2 communications.[5][6]

S1025 Amadey

Amadey has used HTTP for C2 communications.[7]

S0504 Anchor

Anchor has used HTTP and HTTPS in C2 communications.[8]

S0584 AppleJeus

AppleJeus has sent data to its C2 server via POST requests.[9][10]

S0622 AppleSeed

AppleSeed has the ability to communicate with C2 over HTTP.[11][12]

G0026 APT18

APT18 uses HTTP for C2 communications.[13]

G0073 APT19

APT19 used HTTP for C2 communications. APT19 also used an HTTP malware variant to communicate over HTTP for C2.[14][15]

G0007 APT28

Later implants used by APT28, such as CHOPSTICK, use a blend of HTTP, HTTPS, and other legitimate channels for C2, depending on module configuration.[16][17]

G0016 APT29

APT29 has used HTTP for C2 and data exfiltration.[18]

G0050 APT32

APT32 has used JavaScript that communicates over HTTP or HTTPS to attacker controlled domains to download additional frameworks. The group has also used downloaded encrypted payloads over HTTP.[19][20]

G0064 APT33

APT33 has used HTTP for command and control.[21]

G0067 APT37

APT37 uses HTTPS to conceal C2 communications.[22]

G0082 APT38

APT38 used a backdoor, QUICKRIDE, to communicate to the C2 server over HTTP and HTTPS.[23]

G0087 APT39

APT39 has used HTTP in communications with C2.[24][25]

G0096 APT41

APT41 used HTTP to download payloads for CVE-2019-19781 and CVE-2020-10189 exploits.[26]

S0456 Aria-body

Aria-body has used HTTP in C2 communications.[27]

S1029 AuTo Stealer

AuTo Stealer can use HTTP to communicate with its C2 servers.[3]

S0473 Avenger

Avenger has the ability to use HTTP in communication with C2.[2]

S0475 BackConfig

BackConfig has the ability to use HTTPS for C2 communiations.[28]

S0031 BACKSPACE

BACKSPACE uses HTTP as a transport to communicate with its command server.[29]

S0128 BADNEWS

BADNEWS establishes a backdoor over HTTP.[30]

S0337 BadPatch

BadPatch uses HTTP for C2.[31]

S0239 Bankshot

Bankshot uses HTTP for command and control communication.[32]

S0534 Bazar

Bazar can use HTTP and HTTPS over ports 80 and 443 in C2 communications.[33][34][35]

S0470 BBK

BBK has the ability to use HTTP in communications with C2.[2]

S0127 BBSRAT

BBSRAT uses GET and POST requests over HTTP or HTTPS for command and control to obtain commands and send ZLIB compressed data back to the C2 server.[36]

S0268 Bisonal

Bisonal has used HTTP for C2 communications.[37][38]

G1002 BITTER

BITTER has used HTTP POST requests for C2.[39][40]

S0089 BlackEnergy

BlackEnergy communicates with its C2 server over HTTP.[41]

S0564 BlackMould

BlackMould can send commands to C2 in the body of HTTP POST requests.[42]

S0520 BLINDINGCAN

BLINDINGCAN has used HTTPS over port 443 for command and control.[43]

S0657 BLUELIGHT

BLUELIGHT can use HTTP/S for C2 using the Microsoft Graph API.[44]

S0635 BoomBox

BoomBox has used HTTP POST requests for C2.[45]

G0060 BRONZE BUTLER

BRONZE BUTLER malware has used HTTP for C2.[46]

S0043 BUBBLEWRAP

BUBBLEWRAP can communicate using HTTP or HTTPS.[47]

S0482 Bundlore

Bundlore uses HTTP requests for C2.[48]

S0030 Carbanak

The Carbanak malware communicates to its command server using HTTP with an encrypted payload.[49]

S0484 Carberp

Carberp has connected to C2 servers via HTTP.[50]

S0335 Carbon

Carbon can use HTTP in C2 communications.[51]

S0348 Cardinal RAT

Cardinal RAT is downloaded using HTTP over port 443.[52]

S0631 Chaes

Chaes has used HTTP for C2 communications.[53]

S0674 CharmPower

CharmPower can use HTTP to communicate with C2.[54]

S0144 ChChes

ChChes communicates to its C2 server over HTTP and embeds data within the Cookie HTTP header.[55][56]

G0114 Chimera

Chimera has used HTTPS for C2 communications.[57]

S0020 China Chopper

China Chopper's server component executes code sent via HTTP POST commands.[58]

S0023 CHOPSTICK

Various implementations of CHOPSTICK communicate with C2 over HTTP.[59]

S0660 Clambling

Clambling has the ability to communicate over HTTP.[60]

S0054 CloudDuke

One variant of CloudDuke uses HTTP and HTTPS for C2.[61]

G0080 Cobalt Group

Cobalt Group has used HTTPS for C2.[62][63][64]

S0154 Cobalt Strike

Cobalt Strike can use a custom command and control protocol that can be encapsulated in HTTP or HTTPS. All protocols use their standard assigned ports.[65][66][67][68]

S0244 Comnie

Comnie uses HTTP for C2 communication.[69]

S0126 ComRAT

ComRAT has used HTTP requests for command and control.[70][71][72]

G0142 Confucius

Confucius has used HTTP for C2 communications.[73]

S0137 CORESHELL

CORESHELL can communicate over HTTP for C2.[16][74]

S0050 CosmicDuke

CosmicDuke can use HTTP or HTTPS for command and control to hard-coded C2 servers.[61][75]

S0046 CozyCar

CozyCar's main method of communicating with its C2 servers is using HTTP or HTTPS.[76]

S1023 CreepyDrive

CreepyDrive can use HTTPS for C2 using the Microsoft Graph API.[77]

S1024 CreepySnail

CreepySnail can use HTTP for C2.[77]

S0115 Crimson

Crimson can use a HTTP GET request to download its final payload.[78]

S0538 Crutch

Crutch has conducted C2 communications with a Dropbox account using the HTTP API.[79]

S0527 CSPY Downloader

CSPY Downloader can use GET requests to download additional payloads from C2.[80]

S0687 Cyclops Blink

Cyclops Blink can download files via HTTP and HTTPS.[81][82]

S0497 Dacls

Dacls can use HTTPS in C2 communications.[83][84]

S1014 DanBot

DanBot can use HTTP in C2 communication.[85]

G0070 Dark Caracal

Dark Caracal's version of Bandook communicates with their server over a TCP port using HTTP payloads Base64 encoded and suffixed with the string "&&&".[86]

S0334 DarkComet

DarkComet can use HTTP for C2 communications.[87]

S0673 DarkWatchman

DarkWatchman uses HTTPS for command and control.[88]

S0187 Daserf

Daserf uses HTTP for C2.[46]

S0243 DealersChoice

DealersChoice uses HTTP for communication with the C2 server.[89]

S0616 DEATHRANSOM

DEATHRANSOM can use HTTPS to download files.[90]

S0659 Diavol

Diavol has used HTTP GET and POST requests for C2.[91]

S0200 Dipsind

Dipsind uses HTTP for C2.[92]

S0600 Doki

Doki has communicated with C2 over HTTPS.[93]

S0695 Donut

Donut can use HTTP to download previously staged shellcode payloads.[94]

S0472 down_new

down_new has the ability to use HTTP in C2 communications.[2]

S0186 DownPaper

DownPaper communicates to its C2 server over HTTP.[95]

S0694 DRATzarus

DRATzarus can use HTTP or HTTPS for C2 communications.[96]

S0384 Dridex

Dridex has used POST requests and HTTPS for C2 communications.[97][98]

S0502 Drovorub

Drovorub can use the WebSocket protocol and has initiated communication with C2 servers with an HTTP Upgrade request.[99]

S0062 DustySky

DustySky has used both HTTP and HTTPS for C2.[100]

S0024 Dyre

Dyre uses HTTPS for C2 communications.[101][102]

S0554 Egregor

Egregor has communicated with its C2 servers via HTTPS protocol.[103]

S0081 Elise

Elise communicates over HTTP or HTTPS for C2.[104]

S0064 ELMER

ELMER uses HTTP for command and control.[105]

S0082 Emissary

Emissary uses HTTP or HTTPS for C2.[106]

S0363 Empire

Empire can conduct command and control over protocols like HTTP and HTTPS.[107]

S0091 Epic

Epic uses HTTP and HTTPS for C2 communications.[108][109]

S0396 EvilBunny

EvilBunny has executed C2 commands directly via HTTP.[110]

S0401 Exaramel for Linux

Exaramel for Linux uses HTTPS for C2 communications.[111][112]

S0569 Explosive

Explosive has used HTTP for communication.[113]

S0512 FatDuke

FatDuke can be controlled via a custom C2 protocol over HTTP.[114]

S0171 Felismus

Felismus uses HTTP for C2.[115]

S0267 FELIXROOT

FELIXROOT uses HTTP and HTTPS to communicate with the C2 server.[116][117]

G0085 FIN4

FIN4 has used HTTP POST requests to transmit data.[118][119]

G0061 FIN8

FIN8 has used HTTPS for command and control.[120]

S0355 Final1stspy

Final1stspy uses HTTP for C2.[121]

S0696 Flagpro

Flagpro can communicate with its C2 using HTTP.[122]

S0381 FlawedAmmyy

FlawedAmmyy has used HTTP for C2.[123]

S0661 FoggyWeb

FoggyWeb has the ability to communicate with C2 servers over HTTP GET/POST requests.[124]

C0001 Frankenstein

During Frankenstein, the threat actors used HTTP GET requests for C2.[125]

G0047 Gamaredon Group

Gamaredon Group has used HTTP and HTTPS for C2 communications.[126][127][128][129][130][131]

S0168 Gazer

Gazer communicates with its C2 servers over HTTP.[132]

S0666 Gelsemium

Gelsemium can use HTTP/S in C2 communications.[133]

S0049 GeminiDuke

GeminiDuke uses HTTP and HTTPS for command and control.[61]

S0460 Get2

Get2 has the ability to use HTTP to send information collected from an infected host to C2.[134]

S0249 Gold Dragon

Gold Dragon uses HTTP for communication to the control servers.[135]

S0493 GoldenSpy

GoldenSpy has used the Ryeol HTTP Client to facilitate HTTP internet communication.[136]

S0597 GoldFinder

GoldFinder has used HTTP for C2.[137]

S0588 GoldMax

GoldMax has used HTTPS and HTTP GET requests with custom HTTP cookies for C2.[137][138]

S0477 Goopy

Goopy has the ability to communicate with its C2 over HTTP.[20]

S0531 Grandoreiro

Grandoreiro has the ability to use HTTP in C2 communications.[139][140]

S0237 GravityRAT

GravityRAT uses HTTP for C2.[141]

S0342 GreyEnergy

GreyEnergy uses HTTP and HTTPS for C2 communications.[117]

S0632 GrimAgent

GrimAgent has the ability to use HTTP for C2 communications.[142]

S0561 GuLoader

GuLoader can use HTTP to retrieve additional binaries.[143][144]

G0125 HAFNIUM

HAFNIUM has used open-source C2 frameworks, including Covenant.[145]

S0037 HAMMERTOSS

The "Uploader" variant of HAMMERTOSS visits a hard-coded server over HTTP/S to download the images HAMMERTOSS uses to receive commands.[146]

S0391 HAWKBALL

HAWKBALL has used HTTP to communicate with a single hard-coded C2 server.[147]

S0170 Helminth

Helminth can use HTTP for C2.[148]

S0087 Hi-Zor

Hi-Zor communicates with its C2 server over HTTPS.[149]

G0126 Higaisa

Higaisa used HTTP and HTTPS to send data back to its C2 server.[150][151]

S0009 Hikit

Hikit has used HTTP for C2.[152]

S0070 HTTPBrowser

HTTPBrowser has used HTTP and HTTPS for command and control.[153][154]

S0068 httpclient

httpclient uses HTTP for command and control.[1]

S0398 HyperBro

HyperBro has used HTTPS for C2 communications.[155]

S1022 IceApple

IceApple can use HTTP GET to request and pull information from C2.[156]

S0483 IcedID

IcedID has used HTTPS in communications with C2.[157]

G0100 Inception

Inception has used HTTP, HTTPS, and WebDav in network communications.[158][159]

S0604 Industroyer

Industroyer’s main backdoor connected to a remote C2 server using HTTPS.[160]

S0260 InvisiMole

InvisiMole uses HTTP for C2 communications.[161]

S0015 Ixeshe

Ixeshe uses HTTP for command and control.[162][163]

S0044 JHUHUGIT

JHUHUGIT variants have communicated with C2 servers over HTTP and HTTPS.[164][165][166]

S0265 Kazuar

Kazuar uses HTTP and HTTPS to communicate with the C2 server. Kazuar can also act as a webserver and listen for inbound HTTP requests through an exposed API.[167]

G0004 Ke3chang

Ke3chang malware including RoyalCli and BS2005 have communicated over HTTP with the C2 server through Internet Explorer (IE) by using the COM interface IWebBrowser2.[168][169]

S1020 Kevin

Variants of Kevin can communicate with C2 over HTTP.[170]

S0276 Keydnap

Keydnap uses HTTPS for command and control.[171]

S0526 KGH_SPY

KGH_SPY can send data to C2 with HTTP POST requests.[80]

G0094 Kimsuky

Kimsuky has used HTTP GET and POST requests for C2.[172]

S0599 Kinsing

Kinsing has communicated with C2 over HTTP.[173]

S0250 Koadic

Koadic has used HTTP for C2 communications.[174]

S0162 Komplex

The Komplex C2 channel uses HTTP POST requests.[175]

S0356 KONNI

KONNI has used HTTP POST for C2.[176][177]

G0032 Lazarus Group

Lazarus Group has conducted C2 over HTTP and HTTPS.[178][83][84][179][180][181][182]

S0513 LiteDuke

LiteDuke can use HTTP GET requests in C2 communications.[114]

S0680 LitePower

LitePower can use HTTP and HTTPS for C2 communications.[183]

S0447 Lokibot

Lokibot has used HTTP for C2 communications.[184][185]

S0582 LookBack

LookBack’s C2 proxy tool sends data to a C2 server over HTTP.[186]

S0042 LOWBALL

LOWBALL command and control occurs via HTTPS over port 443.[47]

S0409 Machete

Machete uses HTTP for Command & Control.[187][188][189]

S0282 MacSpy

MacSpy uses HTTP for command and control.[190]

G0059 Magic Hound

Magic Hound malware has used HTTP for C2.[191][192]

S0652 MarkiRAT

MarkiRAT can initiate communication over HTTP/HTTPS for its C2 server.[193]

S0449 Maze

Maze has communicated to hard-coded IP addresses via HTTP.[194]

S0500 MCMD

MCMD can use HTTPS in communication with C2 web servers.[195]

S0459 MechaFlounder

MechaFlounder has the ability to use HTTP in communication with C2.[196]

S0455 Metamorfo

Metamorfo has used HTTP for C2.[197][198]

S0339 Micropsia

Micropsia uses HTTP and HTTPS for C2 network communications.[199][200]

S1015 Milan

Milan can use HTTPS for communication with C2.[201][170][202]

S0051 MiniDuke

MiniDuke uses HTTP and HTTPS for command and control.[61][114]

S0084 Mis-Type

Mis-Type network traffic can communicate over HTTP.[203]

S1026 Mongall

Mongall can use HTTP for C2 communication.[204]

S0284 More_eggs

More_eggs uses HTTPS for C2.[62][205]

S1047 Mori

Mori can communicate using HTTP over IPv4 or IPv6 depending on a flag set.[206]

G0069 MuddyWater

MuddyWater has used HTTP for C2 communications.[207][208]

G0129 Mustang Panda

Mustang Panda has communicated with its C2 via HTTP POST requests.[209][210][211][212]

S0699 Mythic

Mythic supports HTTP-based C2 profiles.[213]

S0691 Neoichor

Neoichor can use HTTP for C2 communications.[169]

S0034 NETEAGLE

NETEAGLE will attempt to detect if the infected host is configured to a proxy. If so, NETEAGLE will send beacons via an HTTP POST request. NETEAGLE will also use HTTP to download resources that contain an IP address and Port Number pair to connect to for further C2.[29]

S0198 NETWIRE

NETWIRE has the ability to communicate over HTTP.[214][215]

C0002 Night Dragon

During Night Dragon, threat actors used HTTP for C2.[216]

S0385 njRAT

njRAT has used HTTP for C2 communications.[217]

S0353 NOKKI

NOKKI has used HTTP for C2 communications.[218]

S0340 Octopus

Octopus has used HTTP GET and POST requests for C2 communications.[219][220]

G0049 OilRig

OilRig has used HTTP for C2.[166][221][222]

S0439 Okrum

Okrum uses HTTP for communication with its C2.[223]

S0138 OLDBAIT

OLDBAIT can use HTTP for C2.[16]

S0052 OnionDuke

OnionDuke uses HTTP and HTTPS for C2.[61]

S0264 OopsIE

OopsIE uses HTTP for C2 communications.[224][225]

C0012 Operation CuckooBees

During Operation CuckooBees, the threat actors enabled HTTP and HTTPS listeners.[226]

C0014 Operation Wocao

During Operation Wocao, threat actors’ XServer tool communicated using HTTP and HTTPS.[227]

G0071 Orangeworm

Orangeworm has used HTTP for C2.[228]

S0352 OSX_OCEANLOTUS.D

OSX_OCEANLOTUS.D can use HTTP POST and GET requests to send and receive C2 information.[229]

S0594 Out1

Out1 can use HTTP and HTTPS in communications with remote hosts.[208]

S1017 OutSteel

OutSteel has used HTTP for C2 communications.[230]

S0072 OwaAuth

OwaAuth uses incoming HTTP requests with a username keyword and commands and handles them as instructions to perform actions.[153]

S0598 P.A.S. Webshell

P.A.S. Webshell can issue commands via HTTP POST.[112]

S0664 Pandora

Pandora can communicate over HTTP.[231]

S1050 PcShare

PcShare has used HTTP for C2 communication.[232]

S0643 Peppy

Peppy can use HTTP to communicate with C2.[78]

S0048 PinchDuke

PinchDuke transfers files from the compromised host via HTTP or HTTPS to a C2 server.[61]

S1031 PingPull

A PingPull variant can communicate with its C2 servers by using HTTPS.[233]

S0435 PLEAD

PLEAD has used HTTP for communications with command and control (C2) servers.[234][235]

S0013 PlugX

PlugX can be configured to use HTTP for command and control.[153][236]

S0067 pngdowner

pngdowner uses HTTP for command and control.[1]

S0428 PoetRAT

PoetRAT has used HTTP and HTTPs for C2 communications.[237]

S0518 PolyglotDuke

PolyglotDuke has has used HTTP GET requests in C2 communications.[114]

S0453 Pony

Pony has sent collected information to the C2 via HTTP POST request.[238]

S0378 PoshC2

PoshC2 can use protocols like HTTP/HTTPS for command and control traffic.[239]

S0441 PowerShower

PowerShower has sent HTTP GET and POST requests to C2 servers to send information and receive instructions.[159]

S0371 POWERTON

POWERTON has used HTTP/HTTPS for C2 traffic.[240]

S1046 PowGoop

PowGoop can send HTTP GET requests to malicious servers.[241]

S0184 POWRUNER

POWRUNER can use HTTP for C2 communications.[242][221]

S0238 Proxysvc

Proxysvc uses HTTP over SSL to communicate commands with the control server.[243]

S0078 Psylo

Psylo uses HTTPS for C2.[244]

S0147 Pteranodon

Pteranodon can use HTTP for C2.[126]

S0196 PUNCHBUGGY

PUNCHBUGGY enables remote interaction and can obtain additional code over HTTPS GET and POST requests.[245][246][247]

S0192 Pupy

Pupy can communicate over HTTP for C2.[248]

S0650 QakBot

QakBot has the ability to use HTTP and HTTPS in communication with C2 servers.[249][250][251]

S0269 QUADAGENT

QUADAGENT uses HTTPS and HTTP for C2 communications.[252]

S0686 QuietSieve

QuietSieve can use HTTPS in C2 communications.[253]

S0629 RainyDay

RainyDay can use HTTP in C2 communications.[254]

S0458 Ramsay

Ramsay has used HTTP for C2.[255]

G0075 Rancor

Rancor has used HTTP for C2.[256]

S0241 RATANKBA

RATANKBA uses HTTP/HTTPS for command and control communication.[257][258]

S0662 RCSession

RCSession can use HTTP in C2 communications.[60][259]

S0495 RDAT

RDAT can use HTTP communications for C2, as well as using the WinHTTP library to make requests to the Exchange Web Services API.[260]

S0172 Reaver

Some Reaver variants use HTTP for C2.[261]

S0153 RedLeaves

RedLeaves can communicate to its C2 over HTTP and HTTPS if directed.[262][263]

S0019 Regin

The Regin malware platform supports many standard protocols, including HTTP and HTTPS.[264]

S0375 Remexi

Remexi uses BITSAdmin to communicate with the C2 server over HTTP.[265]

S0125 Remsec

Remsec is capable of using HTTP and HTTPS for C2.[266][267][268]

S0496 REvil

REvil has used HTTP and HTTPS in communication with C2.[269][270][271][272][273]

S0258 RGDoor

RGDoor uses HTTP for C2 communications.[274]

S0003 RIPTIDE

APT12 has used RIPTIDE, a RAT that uses HTTP to communicate.[275]

S0448 Rising Sun

Rising Sun has used HTTP and HTTPS for command and control.[276]

G0106 Rocke

Rocke has executed wget and curl commands to Pastebin over the HTTPS protocol.[277]

S0240 ROKRAT

ROKRAT can use HTTP and HTTPS for command and control communication.[278][279][280]

S0148 RTM

RTM has initiated connections to external domains using HTTPS.[281]

S0085 S-Type

S-Type uses HTTP for C2.[203]

S1018 Saint Bot

Saint Bot has used HTTP for C2 communications.[282]

S0074 Sakula

Sakula uses HTTP for C2.[283]

G0034 Sandworm Team

Sandworm Team's BCS-server tool connects to the designated C2 server via HTTP.[284]

S0053 SeaDuke

SeaDuke uses HTTP and HTTPS for C2.[61]

S0345 Seasalt

Seasalt uses HTTP for C2 communications.[285]

S0382 ServHelper

ServHelper uses HTTP for C2.[286]

S0596 ShadowPad

ShadowPad communicates over HTTP to retrieve a string that is decoded into a C2 server URL.[287]

S0140 Shamoon

Shamoon has used HTTP for C2.[288]

S1019 Shark

Shark has the ability to use HTTP in C2 communications.[201][202]

S0444 ShimRat

ShimRat communicated over HTTP and HTTPS with C2 servers.[289]

S0445 ShimRatReporter

ShimRatReporter communicated over HTTP with preconfigured C2 servers.[289]

S0589 Sibot

Sibot communicated with its C2 server via HTTP GET requests.[137]

S0610 SideTwist

SideTwist has used HTTP GET and POST requests over port 443 for C2.[290]

G0121 Sidewinder

Sidewinder has used HTTP in C2 communications.[291][292][293]

G0083 SilverTerrier

SilverTerrier uses HTTP for C2 communications.[294]

S0633 Sliver

Sliver has the ability to support C2 communications over HTTP/S.[295][296][297]

S0533 SLOTHFULMEDIA

SLOTHFULMEDIA has used HTTP and HTTPS for C2 communications.[298]

S1035 Small Sieve

Small Sieve can contact actor-controlled C2 servers by using the Telegram API over HTTPS.[206]

S0226 Smoke Loader

Smoke Loader uses HTTP for C2.[299]

S0649 SMOKEDHAM

SMOKEDHAM has communicated with its C2 servers via HTTPS and HTTP POST requests.[300]

S0159 SNUGRIDE

SNUGRIDE communicates with its C2 server over HTTP.[262]

S0516 SoreFang

SoreFang can use HTTP in C2 communications.[301][302]

S0543 Spark

Spark has used HTTP POST requests to communicate with its C2 server to receive commands.[303]

S0374 SpeakUp

SpeakUp uses POST and GET requests over HTTP to communicate with its main C&C server. [304]

S1030 Squirrelwaffle

Squirrelwaffle has used HTTP POST requests for C2 communications.[305]

S1037 STARWHALE

STARWHALE has the ability to contact actor-controlled C2 servers via HTTP.[306][206]

G0038 Stealth Falcon

Stealth Falcon malware communicates with its C2 server via HTTPS.[307]

S0491 StrongPity

StrongPity can use HTTP and HTTPS in C2 communications.[308][309]

S0603 Stuxnet

Stuxnet uses HTTP to communicate with a command and control server. [310]

S1042 SUGARDUMP

A SUGARDUMP variant has used HTTP for C2.[311]

S0559 SUNBURST

SUNBURST communicated via HTTP GET or HTTP POST requests to third party servers for C2.[312]

S0578 SUPERNOVA

SUPERNOVA had to receive an HTTP GET request containing a specific set of parameters in order to execute.[313][314]

S0060 Sys10

Sys10 uses HTTP for C2.[315]

G0092 TA505

TA505 has used HTTP to communicate with C2 nodes.[316]

G0127 TA551

TA551 has used HTTP for C2 communications.[317]

S0011 Taidoor

Taidoor has used HTTP GET and POST requests for C2.[318]

G0139 TeamTNT

TeamTNT has the curl command to send credentials over HTTP and the curl and wget commands to download new software.[319][320][321] TeamTNT has also used a custom user agent HTTP header in shell scripts.[322]

S0595 ThiefQuest

ThiefQuest uploads files via unencrypted HTTP. [323][324]

G0027 Threat Group-3390

Threat Group-3390 malware has used HTTP for C2.[325]

S0668 TinyTurla

TinyTurla can use HTTPS in C2 communications.[326]

S0671 Tomiris

Tomiris can use HTTP to establish C2 communications.[327]

S0678 Torisma

Torisma can use HTTP and HTTPS for C2 communications.[328]

S0682 TrailBlazer

TrailBlazer has used HTTP requests for C2.[329]

S0266 TrickBot

TrickBot uses HTTPS to communicate with its C2 servers, to get malware updates, modules that perform most of the malware logic and various configuration files.[330][8]

S0094 Trojan.Karagany

Trojan.Karagany can communicate with C2 via HTTP POST requests.[331]

G0081 Tropic Trooper

Tropic Trooper has used HTTP in communication with the C2.[332][333]

S0436 TSCookie

TSCookie can multiple protocols including HTTP and HTTPS in communication with command and control (C2) servers.[334][335]

S0647 Turian

Turian has the ability to use HTTP for its C2.[336]

G0010 Turla

Turla has used HTTP and HTTPS for C2 communications.[337][338]

S0333 UBoatRAT

UBoatRAT has used HTTP for C2 communications.[339]

S0275 UPPERCUT

UPPERCUT has used HTTP for C2, including sending error codes in Cookie headers.[340]

S0386 Ursnif

Ursnif has used HTTPS for C2.[341][342][343]

S0476 Valak

Valak has used HTTP in communications with C2.[344][317]

S0636 VaporRage

VaporRage can use HTTP to download shellcode from compromised websites.[45]

S0207 Vasport

Vasport creates a backdoor by making a connection using a HTTP POST.[345]

S0442 VBShower

VBShower has attempted to obtain a VBS script from command and control (C2) nodes over HTTP.[346]

S0257 VERMIN

VERMIN uses HTTP for C2 communications.[347]

S0514 WellMess

WellMess can use HTTP and HTTPS in C2 communications.[348][349][350][302]

S0689 WhisperGate

WhisperGate can make an HTTPS connection to download additional files.[351][352]

G0112 Windshift

Windshift has used tools that communicate with C2 over HTTP.[353]

S0466 WindTail

WindTail has the ability to use HTTP for C2 communications.[354]

S0059 WinMM

WinMM uses HTTP for C2.[315]

S0430 Winnti for Linux

Winnti for Linux has used HTTP in outbound communications.[355]

S0141 Winnti for Windows

Winnti for Windows has the ability to use encapsulated HTTP/S in C2 communications.[356]

G0090 WIRTE

WIRTE has used HTTP for network communication.[357]

G0102 Wizard Spider

Wizard Spider has used HTTP for network communications.[358]

S0341 Xbash

Xbash uses HTTP for C2 communications.[359]

S0653 xCaon

xCaon has communicated with the C2 server by sending POST requests over HTTP.[360]

S0388 YAHOYAH

YAHOYAH uses HTTP for C2.[361]

S0251 Zebrocy

Zebrocy uses HTTP for C2.[362][363][364][365][366][367]

S0230 ZeroT

ZeroT has used HTTP for C2.[368][369]

S0330 Zeus Panda

Zeus Panda uses HTTP for C2 communications.[370]

S0086 ZLib

ZLib communicates over HTTP for C2.[203]

S0412 ZxShell

ZxShell has used HTTP for C2 connections.[371]

Mitigations

ID Mitigation Description
M1031 Network Intrusion Prevention

Network intrusion detection and prevention systems that use network signatures to identify traffic for specific adversary malware can be used to mitigate activity at the network level.

Detection

ID Data Source Data Component Detects
DS0029 Network Traffic Network Traffic Content

Monitor and analyze traffic patterns and packet inspection associated to protocol(s), leveraging SSL/TLS inspection for encrypted traffic, that do not follow the expected protocol standards and traffic flows (e.g extraneous packets that do not belong to established flows, gratuitous or anomalous traffic patterns, anomalous syntax, or structure). Consider correlation with process monitoring and command line to detect anomalous processes execution and command line arguments associated to traffic patterns (e.g. monitor anomalies in use of files that do not normally initiate connections for respective protocol(s)).

Network Traffic Flow

Monitor for web traffic to/from known-bad or suspicious domains and analyze traffic flows that do not follow the expected protocol standards and traffic flows (e.g extraneous packets that do not belong to established flows, or gratuitous or anomalous traffic patterns). Consider correlation with process monitoring and command line to detect anomalous processes execution and command line arguments associated to traffic patterns (e.g. monitor anomalies in use of files that do not normally initiate connections for respective protocol(s)).

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