System Information Discovery

An adversary may attempt to get detailed information about the operating system and hardware, including version, patches, hotfixes, service packs, and architecture. Adversaries may use the information from System Information Discovery during automated discovery to shape follow-on behaviors, including whether or not the adversary fully infects the target and/or attempts specific actions.

Windows

Example commands and utilities that obtain this information include ver, Systeminfo, and dir within cmd for identifying information based on present files and directories.

Mac

On Mac, the systemsetup command gives a detailed breakdown of the system, but it requires administrative privileges. Additionally, the system_profiler gives a very detailed breakdown of configurations, firewall rules, mounted volumes, hardware, and many other things without needing elevated permissions.

AWS

In Amazon Web Services (AWS), the Application Discovery Service may be used by an adversary to identify servers, virtual machines, software, and software dependencies running.[1]

GCP

On Google Cloud Platform (GCP) GET /v1beta1/{{parent=organizations/}}/assets or POST /v1beta1/{{parent=organizations/}}/assets:runDiscovery may be used to list an organizations cloud assets, or perform asset discovery on a cloud environment.[2]

Azure

In Azure, the API request GET https://management.azure.com/subscriptions/{{subscriptionId}}/resourceGroups/{{resourceGroupName}}/providers/Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines/{{vmName}}?api-version=2019-03-01 may be used to retrieve information about the model or instance view of a virtual machine.[3]

ID: T1082
Tactic: Discovery
Platform: Linux, macOS, Windows, AWS, GCP, Azure
Permissions Required: User
Data Sources: Azure activity logs, Stackdriver logs, AWS CloudTrail logs, Process monitoring, Process command-line parameters
CAPEC ID: CAPEC-312
Contributors: Praetorian
Version: 2.0

Procedure Examples

Name Description
4H RAT 4H RAT sends an OS version identifier in its beacons. [16]
admin@338 admin@338 actors used the following commands after exploiting a machine with LOWBALL malware to obtain information about the OS: ver >> %temp%\download systeminfo >> %temp%\download [102]
ADVSTORESHELL ADVSTORESHELL can run Systeminfo to gather information about the victim. [49] [50]
Agent Tesla Agent Tesla collects the system's computer name and also has the capability to collect information on the processor, memory, and video card from the system. [134] [135]
APT18 APT18 can collect system information from the victim’s machine. [186]
APT19 APT19 collected system architecture information. APT19 used an HTTP malware variant and a Port 22 malware variant to gather the hostname and CPU information from the victim’s machine. [167] [168]
APT3 APT3 has a tool that can obtain information about the local system. [123] [177]
APT32 APT32 has collected the OS version and computer name from victims. One of the group's backdoors can also query the Windows Registry to gather system information, and another macOS backdoor performs a fingerprint of the machine on its first connection to the C&C server. [174] [175] [176]
APT37 APT37 collects the computer name, the BIOS model, and execution path. [163]
Astaroth Astaroth collects the machine name and keyboard language from the system. [136] [137]
Azorult Azorult can collect the machine information, system architecture, the OS version, computer name, Windows product name, the number of CPU cores, video card information, and the system language. [93] [94]
BabyShark BabyShark has executed the ver command. [158]
Backdoor.Oldrea Backdoor.Oldrea collects information about the OS and computer name. [127]
BACKSPACE During its initial execution, BACKSPACE extracts operating system information from the infected host. [62]
BADCALL BADCALL collects the computer name and host name on the compromised system. [124]
BadPatch BadPatch collects the OS system, OS version, MAC address, and the computer name from the victim’s machine. [121]
Bankshot Bankshot gathers system information, network addresses, disk type, disk free space, and the operation system version. [114] [115]
BISCUIT BISCUIT has a command to collect the processor type, operation system, computer name, uptime, and whether the system is a laptop or PC. [92]
Bisonal Bisonal has a command to gather system information from the victim’s machine. [83]
BlackEnergy BlackEnergy has used Systeminfo to gather the OS version, as well as information on the system configuration, BIOS, the motherboard, and the processor. [36] [37]
Brave Prince Brave Prince collects hard drive content and system configuration information. [74]
BUBBLEWRAP BUBBLEWRAP collects system information, including the operating system version and hostname. [102]
Cannon Cannon can gather system information from the victim’s machine such as the OS version, machine name, and drive information. [40] [42]
Cardinal RAT Cardinal RAT can collect the hostname, Microsoft Windows version, and processor architecture from a victim machine. [35]
ChChes ChChes collects the victim hostname, window resolution, and Microsoft Windows version. [51] [52]
cmd cmd can be used to find information about the operating system. [7]
Comnie Comnie collects the hostname of the victim machine. [101]
CORESHELL CORESHELL collects hostname, volume serial number and OS version data from the victim and sends the information to its C2 server. [54]
CozyCar A system info module in CozyCar gathers information on the victim host’s configuration. [118]
Crimson Crimson contains a command to collect the victim PC name and operating system. [12]
DarkComet DarkComet can collect the computer name, RAM used, and operating system version from the victim’s machine. [33] [34]
Darkhotel Darkhotel has collected the hostname, OS version, service pack version, and the processor architecture from the victim’s machine. [179]
Denis Denis collects OS information and the computer name from the victim’s machine. [104] [105]
Derusbi Derusbi gathers the name of the local host, version of GNU Compiler Collection (GCC), and the system information about the CPU, machine, and operating system. [125]
DownPaper DownPaper collects the victim host name and serial number, and then sends the information to the C2 server. [132]
DustySky DustySky extracts basic information about the operating system. [77]
Elise Elise executes systeminfo after initial communication is made to the remote server. [59]
Emissary Emissary has the capability to execute ver, systeminfo, and gpresult commands. [64]
Empire Empire can enumerate host system information like OS, architecture, applied patches, and more. [8]
Epic Epic collects the OS version, hardware information, computer name, available system memory status, disk space information, and system and user language settings. [128]
FALLCHILL FALLCHILL can collect operating system (OS) version information, processor information, system name, and information about installed disks from the victim. [38]
Felismus Felismus collects the system information, including hostname and OS version, and sends it to the C2 server. [103]
FELIXROOT FELIXROOT collects the victim’s computer name, processor architecture, OS version, volume serial number, and system type. [81] [82]
Final1stspy Final1stspy obtains victim Microsoft Windows version information and CPU architecture. [22]
FinFisher FinFisher checks if the victim OS is 32 or 64-bit. [86] [87]
FlawedAmmyy FlawedAmmyy beacons out the victim operating system and computer name during the initial infection. [143]
Fysbis Fysbis has used the command ls /etc | egrep -e"fedora*|debian*|gentoo*|mandriva*|mandrake*|meego*|redhat*|lsb-*|sun-*|SUSE*|release" to determine which Linux OS version is running. [156]
Gamaredon Group A Gamaredon Group file stealer can gather the victim's computer name and drive serial numbers to send to a C2 server. [164]
Gold Dragon Gold Dragon collects endpoint information using the systeminfo command. [74]
GravityRAT GravityRAT collects the MAC address, computer name, and CPU information. [120]
GRIFFON GRIFFON has used a reconnaissance module that can be used to retrieve information about a victim's computer, including the resolution of the workstation . [159]
HALFBAKED HALFBAKED can obtain information about the OS, processor, and BIOS. [60]
HAPPYWORK can collect system information, including computer name, system manufacturer, IsDebuggerPresent state, and execution path. [45]
HAWKBALL HAWKBALL can collect the OS version, architecture information, and computer name. [152]
Honeybee Honeybee gathers computer name and information using the systeminfo command. [165]
HOPLIGHT HOPLIGHT has been observed collecting victim machine information like OS version, drivers, volume information and more. [139]
Hydraq Hydraq creates a backdoor through which remote attackers can retrieve information such as computer name, OS version, processor speed, memory size, and CPU speed. [85]
InnaputRAT InnaputRAT gathers volume drive information and system information. [23]
InvisiMole InvisiMole can gather information on the mapped drives, OS version, computer name, and memory size. [67]
Ixeshe Ixeshe collects the computer name of the victim's system during the initial infection. [147]
JHUHUGIT JHUHUGIT obtains a build identifier as well as victim hard drive information from Windows registry key HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Disk\Enum. Another JHUHUGIT variant gathers the victim storage volume serial number and the storage device name. [27] [28]
JPIN JPIN can obtain system information such as OS version and disk space. [10]
jRAT jRAT collects information about the OS (version, build type, install date) as well as system up-time upon receiving a connection from a backdoor. [140]
KARAE KARAE can collect system information. [45]
Kasidet Kasidet has the ability to obtain a victim's system name and operating system version. [111]
Kazuar Kazuar gathers information on the system and local drives. [61]
Ke3chang Ke3chang performs operating system information discovery using systeminfo. [161] [162]
KeyBoy KeyBoy can gather extended system information, such as information about the operating system, disks, and memory. [149] [150]
KEYMARBLE KEYMARBLE has the capability to collect the computer name, language settings, the OS version, CPU information, disk devices, and time elapsed since system start. [109]
Kimsuky Kimsuky has gathered information about the infected computer. [187]
KOMPROGO KOMPROGO is capable of retrieving information about the infected system. [55]
KONNI KONNI can gather the OS version, architecture information, connected drives, hostname, and computer name from the victim’s machine. [131]
Kwampirs Kwampirs collects OS version information such as registered owner details, manufacturer details, processor type, available storage, installed patches, hostname, version info, system date, and other system information by using the commands systeminfo, net config workstation, hostname, ver, set, and date /t. [57]
Lazarus Group Several Lazarus Group malware families collect information on the type and version of the victim OS, as well as the victim computer name and CPU information. A Destover-like variant used by Lazarus Group also collects disk space information and sends it to its C2 server. [182] [183] [184] [185] [70]
LightNeuron LightNeuron gathers the victim computer name using the Win32 API call GetComputerName. [153]
Linfo Linfo creates a backdoor through which remote attackers can retrieve system information. [29]
Machete Machete collects the hostname of the target computer. [155]
Magic Hound Magic Hound malware has used a PowerShell command to check the victim system architecture to determine if it is an x64 machine. Other malware has obtained the OS version, UUID, and computer/host name to send to the C2 server. [172]
Micropsia Micropsia gathers the hostname and OS version from the victim’s machine. [90] [91]
MirageFox MirageFox can collect CPU and architecture information from the victim’s machine. [15]
Mis-Type The initial beacon packet for Mis-Type contains the operating system version and file system of the victim. [20]
Misdat The initial beacon packet for Misdat contains the operating system version of the victim. [20]
MobileOrder MobileOrder has a command to upload to its C2 server victim mobile device information, including IMEI, IMSI, SIM card serial number, phone number, Android version, and other information. [14]
MoonWind MoonWind can obtain the victim hostname, Windows version, RAM amount, number of drives, and screen resolution. [110]
More_eggs More_eggs has the capability to gather the OS version and computer name. [99] [100]
MuddyWater MuddyWater has used malware that can collect the victim’s OS version and machine name. [180] [181]
MURKYTOP MURKYTOP has the capability to retrieve information about the OS. [56]
Naid Naid collects a unique identifier (UID) from a compromised host. [11]
NanHaiShu NanHaiShu can gather the victim computer name and serial number. [25]
NavRAT NavRAT uses systeminfo on a victim’s machine. [116]
NDiskMonitor NDiskMonitor obtains the victim computer name and encrypts the information to send over its C2 channel. [119]
NETWIRE NETWIRE can discover and collect victim system information. [96]
njRAT njRAT enumerates the victim operating system and computer name during the initial infection. [145]
NOKKI NOKKI can gather information on drives and the operating system on the victim’s machine. [89]
OceanSalt OceanSalt can collect the computer name from the system. [107]
Octopus Octopus collects system drive information, the computer name, and the size of the disk. [84]
OilRig OilRig has run hostname and systeminfo on a victim. [169] [170] [171]
OopsIE OopsIE checks for information on the CPU fan, temperature, mouse, hard disk, and motherboard as part of its anti-VM checks. [21]
Orz Orz can gather the victim OS version and whether it is 64 or 32 bit. [25]
OSInfo OSInfo discovers information about the infected machine. [123]
OSX/Shlayer OSX/Shlayer can collect the macOS version and IOPlatformUUID. [154]
OSX_OCEANLOTUS.D OSX_OCEANLOTUS.D collects the MAC address, computer name, hardware UUID, serial number, and operating system version. [130]
Pasam Pasam creates a backdoor through which remote attackers can retrieve information such as hostname and free disk space. [122]
Patchwork Patchwork collected the victim computer name, OS version, and architecture type and sent the information to its C2 server. Patchwork also enumerated all available drives on the victim's machine. [160] [119]
PinchDuke PinchDuke gathers system configuration information. [58]
Pisloader Pisloader has a command to collect victim system information, including the system name and OS version. [98]
PLAINTEE PLAINTEE collects general system enumeration data about the infected machine and checks the OS version. [108]
POORAIM POORAIM can identify system information, including battery status. [45]
PoshC2 PoshC2 contains modules, such as Get-ComputerInfo, for enumerating common system information. [9]
PowerDuke PowerDuke has commands to get information about the victim's name, build, version, serial number, and memory usage. [13]
POWERSTATS POWERSTATS can retrieve OS name/architecture and computer/domain name information from compromised hosts. [66]
POWRUNER POWRUNER may collect information about the system by running hostname and systeminfo on a victim. [126]
Prikormka A module in Prikormka collects information from the victim about Windows OS version, computer name, battery info, and physical memory. [113]
Proxysvc Proxysvc collects the OS version, country name, MAC address, computer name, physical memory statistics, and volume information for all drives on the system. [70]
PUNCHBUGGY PUNCHBUGGY can gather system information such as computer names. [148]
Pupy Pupy can grab a system’s information including the OS version, architecture, etc. [5]
QuasarRAT QuasarRAT has a command to gather system information from the victim’s machine. [4]
RATANKBA RATANKBA gathers information about the OS architecture, OS name, and OS version/Service pack. [75] [76]
Reaver Reaver collects system information from the victim, including CPU speed, computer name, volume serial number, ANSI code page, OEM code page identifier for the OS, Microsoft Windows version, and memory information. [112]
RedLeaves RedLeaves can gather extended system information including the hostname, OS version number, platform, memory information, time elapsed since system startup, and CPU information. [52] [53]
Remsec Remsec can obtain the OS version information, computer name, processor architecture, machine role, and OS edition. [17]
Revenge RAT Revenge RAT collects the CPU information, OS information, and system language. [141]
RogueRobin RogueRobin gathers BIOS versions and manufacturers, the number of CPU cores, the total physical memory, and the computer name. [79]
ROKRAT ROKRAT gathers the computer name and checks the OS version to ensure it doesn’t run on a Windows XP or Windows Server 2003 systems. [46] [47] [48]
RTM RTM can obtain the computer name, OS version, and default language identifier. [63]
RunningRAT RunningRAT gathers the OS version, logical drives information, processor information, and volume information. [74]
S-Type The initial beacon packet for S-Type contains the operating system version and file system of the victim. [20]
ServHelper ServHelper will attempt to enumerate Windows version and system architecture. [144]
Shamoon Shamoon obtains the victim's operating system version and keyboard layout and sends the information to the C2 server. [26]
SHUTTERSPEED SHUTTERSPEED can collect system information. [45]
SLOWDRIFT SLOWDRIFT collects and sends system information to its C2. [45]
SOUNDBITE SOUNDBITE is capable of gathering system information. [55]
Sowbug Sowbug obtained OS version and hardware configuration from a victim. [178]
SpeakUp SpeakUp uses the cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep -c “cpu family” 2>&1 command to gather system information. [138]
SslMM SslMM sends information to its hard-coded C2, including OS version, service pack information, processor speed, system name, and OS install date. [19]
Stealth Falcon Stealth Falcon malware gathers system information via WMI, including the system directory, build number, serial number, version, manufacturer, model, and total physical memory. [166]
StoneDrill StoneDrill has the capability to discover the system OS, Windows version, architecture and environment. [142]
StreamEx StreamEx has the ability to enumerate system information. [80]
SynAck SynAck gathers computer names, OS version info, and also checks installed keyboard layouts to estimate if it has been launched from a certain list of countries. [88]
Sys10 Sys10 collects the computer name, OS versioning information, and OS install date and sends the information to the C2. [19]
Systeminfo Systeminfo can be used to gather information about the operating system. [6]
T9000 T9000 gathers and beacons the operating system build number and CPU Architecture (32-bit/64-bit) during installation. [133]
TrickBot TrickBot gathers the OS version, CPU type, amount of RAM available from the victim’s machine. [68] [69]
Tropic Trooper Tropic Trooper has detected a target system’s OS version. [151]
Turla Turla surveys a system upon check-in to discover operating system configuration details using the systeminfo and set commands. [173]
TURNEDUP TURNEDUP is capable of gathering system information. [117]
TYPEFRAME TYPEFRAME can gather the disk volume information. [24]
Unknown Logger Unknown Logger can obtain information about the victim computer name, physical memory, country, and date. [106]
UPPERCUT UPPERCUT has the capability to gather the system’s hostname and OS version. [97]
Ursnif Ursnif has used Systeminfo to gather system information. [146]
VERMIN VERMIN collects the OS name, machine name, and architecture information. [78]
Volgmer Volgmer can gather system information, the computer name, OS version, drive and serial information from the victim's machine. [71] [72] [73]
WINDSHIELD WINDSHIELD can gather the victim computer name. [55]
WINERACK WINERACK can gather information about the host. [45]
Wingbird Wingbird checks the victim OS version after executing to determine where to drop files based on whether the victim is 32-bit or 64-bit. [129]
WinMM WinMM collects the system name, OS version including service pack, and system install date and sends the information to the C2 server. [19]
XAgentOSX XAgentOSX contains the getInstalledAPP function to run ls -la /Applications to gather what applications are installed. [65]
Yahoyah Yahoyah checks for the system’s Windows OS version and hostname. [151]
yty yty gathers the computer name, the serial number of the main disk volume, CPU information, Microsoft Windows version, and runs the command systeminfo. [30]
Zebrocy Zebrocy collects the OS version, computer name and serial number for the storage volume C:. Zebrocy also runs the systeminfo command to gather system information. [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44]
ZeroT ZeroT gathers the victim's computer name, Windows version, and system language, and then sends it to its C2 server. [18]
Zeus Panda Zeus Panda collects the OS version, system architecture, computer name, product ID, install date, and information on the keyboard mapping to determine the language used on the system. [31] [32]
ZLib ZLib has the ability to enumerate system information. [20]
zwShell zwShell can obtain the victim PC name and OS version. [95]
ZxShell ZxShell can collect the local hostname, operating system details, CPU speed, and total physical memory. [157]

Mitigations

This type of attack technique cannot be easily mitigated with preventive controls since it is based on the abuse of system features.

Detection

System and network discovery techniques normally occur throughout an operation as an adversary learns the environment. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities based on the information obtained.

Monitor processes and command-line arguments for actions that could be taken to gather system and network information. Remote access tools with built-in features may interact directly with the Windows API to gather information. Information may also be acquired through Windows system management tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

In cloud-based systems, native logging can be used to identify access to certain APIs and dashboards that may contain system information. Depending on how the environment is used, that data alone may not be useful due to benign use during normal operations.

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