Credentials from Password Stores: Credentials from Web Browsers

ID Name
T1555.001 Keychain
T1555.002 Securityd Memory
T1555.003 Credentials from Web Browsers

Adversaries may acquire credentials from web browsers by reading files specific to the target browser.[1] Web browsers commonly save credentials such as website usernames and passwords so that they do not need to be entered manually in the future. Web browsers typically store the credentials in an encrypted format within a credential store; however, methods exist to extract plaintext credentials from web browsers.

For example, on Windows systems, encrypted credentials may be obtained from Google Chrome by reading a database file, AppData\Local\Google\Chrome\User Data\Default\Login Data and executing a SQL query: SELECT action_url, username_value, password_value FROM logins;. The plaintext password can then be obtained by passing the encrypted credentials to the Windows API function CryptUnprotectData, which uses the victim’s cached logon credentials as the decryption key. [2]

Adversaries have executed similar procedures for common web browsers such as FireFox, Safari, Edge, etc. [3][4]

Adversaries may also acquire credentials by searching web browser process memory for patterns that commonly match credentials.[5]

After acquiring credentials from web browsers, adversaries may attempt to recycle the credentials across different systems and/or accounts in order to expand access. This can result in significantly furthering an adversary's objective in cases where credentials gained from web browsers overlap with privileged accounts (e.g. domain administrator).

ID: T1555.003
Sub-technique of:  T1555
Tactic: Credential Access
Platforms: Linux, Windows, macOS
Permissions Required: User
Data Sources: API monitoring, File monitoring, PowerShell logs, Process monitoring
Contributors: Barry Shteiman, Exabeam; RedHuntLabs, @redhuntlabs; Ryan Benson, Exabeam; Sylvain Gil, Exabeam
Version: 1.0
Created: 12 February 2020
Last Modified: 17 February 2020

Procedure Examples

Name Description
APT3

APT3 has used tools to dump passwords from browsers.[54]

APT33

APT33 has used a variety of publicly available tools like LaZagne to gather credentials.[55][56]

APT37

APT37 has used a credential stealer known as ZUMKONG that can harvest usernames and passwords stored in browsers.[48]

Azorult

Azorult can steal credentials from the victim's browser.[29]

Backdoor.Oldrea

Some Backdoor.Oldrea samples contain a publicly available Web browser password recovery tool.[16]

BlackEnergy

BlackEnergy has used a plug-in to gather credentials from web browsers including FireFox, Google Chrome, and Internet Explorer.[30][31]

ChChes

ChChes steals credentials stored inside Internet Explorer.[24]

CosmicDuke

CosmicDuke collects user credentials, including passwords, for various programs including Web browsers.[40]

Crimson

Crimson contains a module to steal credentials from Web browsers on the victim machine.[21]

Emotet

Emotet has been observed dropping browser password grabber modules. [41]

Empire

Empire can use modules that extract passwords from common web browsers such as Firefox and Chrome.[7]

H1N1

H1N1 dumps usernames and passwords from Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Outlook.[18]

Imminent Monitor

Imminent Monitor has a PasswordRecoveryPacket module for recovering browser passwords.[15]

Inception

Inception used a browser plugin to steal passwords and sessions from Internet Explorer, Chrome, Opera, Firefox, Torch, and Yandex.[63]

jRAT

jRAT can capture passwords from common web browsers such as Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, and Firefox.[32]

KeyBoy

KeyBoy attempts to collect passwords from browsers.[27]

Kimsuky

Kimsuky has used a Google Chrome extension to steal passwords and cookies from their browsers.[53]

KONNI

KONNI can steal profiles (containing credential information) from Firefox, Chrome, and Opera.[22]

LaZagne

LaZagne can obtain credentials from web browsers such as Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, and Firefox.[6]

Leafminer

Leafminer used several tools for retrieving login and password information, including LaZagne.[57]

Lokibot

Lokibot has demonstrated the ability to steal credentials from multiple applications and data sources including Safari and the Chromium and Mozilla Firefox-based web browsers.[46]

Machete

Machete collects stored credentials from several web browsers.[39]

Magic Hound

Magic Hound used FireMalv, custom-developed malware, which collected passwords from the Firefox browser storage.[65]

Mimikatz

Mimikatz performs credential dumping to obtain account and password information useful in gaining access to additional systems and enterprise network resources. It contains functionality to acquire information about credentials in many ways, including from DPAPI.[10][11][12][13]

Molerats

Molerats used the public tool BrowserPasswordDump10 to dump passwords saved in browsers on victims.[47]

MuddyWater

MuddyWater has run a tool that steals passwords saved in victim web browsers.[50]

njRAT

njRAT has a module that steals passwords saved in victim web browsers.[33][34][35]

OilRig

OilRig has used credential dumping tools such as LaZagne to steal credentials to accounts logged into the compromised system and to Outlook Web Access.[58][59][60][61] OilRig has also used tools named VALUEVAULT and PICKPOCKET to dump passwords from web browsers.[61]

OLDBAIT

OLDBAIT collects credentials from Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, and Eudora.[23]

Olympic Destroyer

Olympic Destroyer contains a module that tries to obtain stored credentials from web browsers.[1]

Patchwork

Patchwork dumped the login data database from \AppData\Local\Google\Chrome\User Data\Default\Login Data.[49]

PinchDuke

PinchDuke steals credentials from compromised hosts. PinchDuke's credential stealing functionality is believed to be based on the source code of the Pinch credential stealing malware (also known as LdPinch). Credentials targeted by PinchDuke include ones associated with many sources such as Netscape Navigator, Mozilla Firefox, Mozilla Thunderbird, and Internet Explorer. [40]

PLEAD

PLEAD has the ability to steal saved credentials from web browsers.[43][44]

PoetRAT

PoetRAT has used a Python tool named Browdec.exe to steal browser credentials.[42]

Prikormka

A module in Prikormka gathers logins and passwords stored in applications on the victims, including Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and several other browsers.[17]

Proton

Proton gathers credentials for Google Chrome.[36]

Pupy

Pupy can use Lazagne for harvesting credentials.[14]

QuasarRAT

QuasarRAT can obtain passwords from common web browsers.[8][9]

RedLeaves

RedLeaves can gather browser usernames and passwords.[25]

ROKRAT

ROKRAT steals credentials stored in Web browsers by querying the sqlite database.[26]

Sandworm Team

Sandworm Team's CredRaptor tool can collect saved passwords from various internet browsers.[64]

Smoke Loader

Smoke Loader searches for credentials stored from web browsers.[37]

Stealth Falcon

Stealth Falcon malware gathers passwords from multiple sources, including Internet Explorer, Firefox, and Chrome.[62]

Stolen Pencil

Stolen Pencil has used tools that are capable of obtaining credentials from web browsers.[51]

TA505

TA505 has used malware to gather credentials from Internet Explorer.[52]

TrickBot

TrickBot can obtain passwords stored in files from web browsers such as Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Microsoft Edge.[38]

TSCookie

TSCookie has the ability to steal saved passwords from the Internet Explorer, Edge, Firefox, and Chrome browsers.[45]

Unknown Logger

Unknown Logger is capable of stealing usernames and passwords from browsers on the victim machine.[20]

XAgentOSX

XAgentOSX contains the getFirefoxPassword function to attempt to locate Firefox passwords.[19]

Zebrocy

Zebrocy has the capability to upload dumper tools that extract credentials from web browsers and store them in database files.[28]

Mitigations

Mitigation Description
Password Policies

Organizations may consider weighing the risk of storing credentials in web browsers. If web browser credential disclosure is a significant concern, technical controls, policy, and user training may be used to prevent storage of credentials in web browsers.

Detection

Identify web browser files that contain credentials such as Google Chrome’s Login Data database file: AppData\Local\Google\Chrome\User Data\Default\Login Data. Monitor file read events of web browser files that contain credentials, especially when the reading process is unrelated to the subject web browser. Monitor process execution logs to include PowerShell Transcription focusing on those that perform a combination of behaviors including reading web browser process memory, utilizing regular expressions, and those that contain numerous keywords for common web applications (Gmail, Twitter, Office365, etc.).

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