Credentials from Password Stores: Credentials from Web Browsers

Adversaries may acquire credentials from web browsers by reading files specific to the target browser.[1] Web browsers commonly save credentials such as website usernames and passwords so that they do not need to be entered manually in the future. Web browsers typically store the credentials in an encrypted format within a credential store; however, methods exist to extract plaintext credentials from web browsers.

For example, on Windows systems, encrypted credentials may be obtained from Google Chrome by reading a database file, AppData\Local\Google\Chrome\User Data\Default\Login Data and executing a SQL query: SELECT action_url, username_value, password_value FROM logins;. The plaintext password can then be obtained by passing the encrypted credentials to the Windows API function CryptUnprotectData, which uses the victim’s cached logon credentials as the decryption key. [2]

Adversaries have executed similar procedures for common web browsers such as FireFox, Safari, Edge, etc.[3][4] Windows stores Internet Explorer and Microsoft Edge credentials in Credential Lockers managed by the Windows Credential Manager.

Adversaries may also acquire credentials by searching web browser process memory for patterns that commonly match credentials.[5]

After acquiring credentials from web browsers, adversaries may attempt to recycle the credentials across different systems and/or accounts in order to expand access. This can result in significantly furthering an adversary's objective in cases where credentials gained from web browsers overlap with privileged accounts (e.g. domain administrator).

ID: T1555.003
Sub-technique of:  T1555
Platforms: Linux, Windows, macOS
Permissions Required: User
Data Sources: Command: Command Execution, File: File Access, Process: OS API Execution, Process: Process Access
Contributors: Barry Shteiman, Exabeam; RedHuntLabs, @redhuntlabs; Ryan Benson, Exabeam; Sylvain Gil, Exabeam
Version: 1.1
Created: 12 February 2020
Last Modified: 14 April 2021

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
S0331 Agent Tesla

Agent Tesla can gather credentials from a number of browsers.[6]

G0130 Ajax Security Team

Ajax Security Team has used FireMalv custom-developed malware, which collected passwords from the Firefox browser storage.[7]

G0022 APT3

APT3 has used tools to dump passwords from browsers.[8]

G0064 APT33

APT33 has used a variety of publicly available tools like LaZagne to gather credentials.[9][10]

G0067 APT37

APT37 has used a credential stealer known as ZUMKONG that can harvest usernames and passwords stored in browsers.[11]

S0344 Azorult

Azorult can steal credentials from the victim's browser.[12]

S0093 Backdoor.Oldrea

Some Backdoor.Oldrea samples contain a publicly available Web browser password recovery tool.[13]

S0089 BlackEnergy

BlackEnergy has used a plug-in to gather credentials from web browsers including FireFox, Google Chrome, and Internet Explorer.[14][15]

S0484 Carberp

Carberp's passw.plug plugin can gather passwords saved in Opera, Internet Explorer, Safari, Firefox, and Chrome.[16]

S0144 ChChes

ChChes steals credentials stored inside Internet Explorer.[17]

S0492 CookieMiner

CookieMiner can steal saved usernames and passwords in Chrome as well as credit card credentials.[18]

S0050 CosmicDuke

CosmicDuke collects user credentials, including passwords, for various programs including Web browsers.[19]

S0115 Crimson

Crimson contains a module to steal credentials from Web browsers on the victim machine.[20]

S0367 Emotet

Emotet has been observed dropping browser password grabber modules. [21][22]

S0363 Empire

Empire can use modules that extract passwords from common web browsers such as Firefox and Chrome.[23]

G0037 FIN6

FIN6 has used the Stealer One credential stealer to target web browsers.[24]

S0531 Grandoreiro

Grandoreiro can steal cookie data and credentials from Google Chrome.[25][26]

S0132 H1N1

H1N1 dumps usernames and passwords from Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Outlook.[27]

S0434 Imminent Monitor

Imminent Monitor has a PasswordRecoveryPacket module for recovering browser passwords.[28]

G0100 Inception

Inception used a browser plugin to steal passwords and sessions from Internet Explorer, Chrome, Opera, Firefox, Torch, and Yandex.[29]

S0528 Javali

Javali can capture login credentials from open browsers including Firefox, Chrome, Internet Explorer, and Edge.[30]

S0283 jRAT

jRAT can capture passwords from common web browsers such as Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, and Firefox.[31]

S0387 KeyBoy

KeyBoy attempts to collect passwords from browsers.[32]

S0526 KGH_SPY

KGH_SPY has the ability to steal data from the Chrome, Edge, Firefox, Thunderbird, and Opera browsers.[33]

G0094 Kimsuky

Kimsuky has used browser extensions including Google Chrome to steal passwords and cookies from browsers.[34][35]

S0356 KONNI

KONNI can steal profiles (containing credential information) from Firefox, Chrome, and Opera.[36]

S0349 LaZagne

LaZagne can obtain credentials from web browsers such as Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, and Firefox.[37]

G0077 Leafminer

Leafminer used several tools for retrieving login and password information, including LaZagne.[38]

S0447 Lokibot

Lokibot has demonstrated the ability to steal credentials from multiple applications and data sources including Safari and the Chromium and Mozilla Firefox-based web browsers.[39]

S0409 Machete

Machete collects stored credentials from several web browsers.[40]

S0530 Melcoz

Melcoz has the ability to steal credentials from web browsers.[30]

S0002 Mimikatz

Mimikatz performs credential dumping to obtain account and password information useful in gaining access to additional systems and enterprise network resources. It contains functionality to acquire information about credentials in many ways, including from DPAPI.[41][42][43][44]

G0021 Molerats

Molerats used the public tool BrowserPasswordDump10 to dump passwords saved in browsers on victims.[45]

G0069 MuddyWater

MuddyWater has run tools including Browser64 to steal passwords saved in victim web browsers.[46][47]

S0198 NETWIRE

NETWIRE has the ability to steal credentials from web browsers including Internet Explorer, Opera, Yandex, and Chrome.[48][49][50]

S0385 njRAT

njRAT has a module that steals passwords saved in victim web browsers.[51][52][53]

G0049 OilRig

OilRig has used credential dumping tools such as LaZagne to steal credentials to accounts logged into the compromised system and to Outlook Web Access.[54][55][56][57] OilRig has also used tool named PICKPOCKET to dump passwords from web browsers.[57]

S0138 OLDBAIT

OLDBAIT collects credentials from Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, and Eudora.[58]

S0365 Olympic Destroyer

Olympic Destroyer contains a module that tries to obtain stored credentials from web browsers.[1]

G0040 Patchwork

Patchwork dumped the login data database from \AppData\Local\Google\Chrome\User Data\Default\Login Data.[59]

S0048 PinchDuke

PinchDuke steals credentials from compromised hosts. PinchDuke's credential stealing functionality is believed to be based on the source code of the Pinch credential stealing malware (also known as LdPinch). Credentials targeted by PinchDuke include ones associated with many sources such as Netscape Navigator, Mozilla Firefox, Mozilla Thunderbird, and Internet Explorer. [19]

S0435 PLEAD

PLEAD has the ability to steal saved credentials from web browsers.[60][61]

S0428 PoetRAT

PoetRAT has used a Python tool named Browdec.exe to steal browser credentials.[62]

S0113 Prikormka

A module in Prikormka gathers logins and passwords stored in applications on the victims, including Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and several other browsers.[63]

S0279 Proton

Proton gathers credentials for Google Chrome.[64]

S0192 Pupy

Pupy can use Lazagne for harvesting credentials.[65]

S0262 QuasarRAT

QuasarRAT can obtain passwords from common web browsers.[66][67]

S0153 RedLeaves

RedLeaves can gather browser usernames and passwords.[68]

S0240 ROKRAT

ROKRAT steals credentials stored in Web browsers by querying the sqlite database.[69]

G0034 Sandworm Team

Sandworm Team's CredRaptor tool can collect saved passwords from various internet browsers.[70]

S0226 Smoke Loader

Smoke Loader searches for credentials stored from web browsers.[71]

G0038 Stealth Falcon

Stealth Falcon malware gathers passwords from multiple sources, including Internet Explorer, Firefox, and Chrome.[72]

G0086 Stolen Pencil

Stolen Pencil has used tools that are capable of obtaining credentials from web browsers.[73]

G0092 TA505

TA505 has used malware to gather credentials from Internet Explorer.[74]

S0266 TrickBot

TrickBot can obtain passwords stored in files from web browsers such as Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Microsoft Edge, sometimes using esentutl.[75][76]

S0094 Trojan.Karagany

Trojan.Karagany can steal data and credentials from browsers.[77]

S0436 TSCookie

TSCookie has the ability to steal saved passwords from the Internet Explorer, Edge, Firefox, and Chrome browsers.[78]

S0130 Unknown Logger

Unknown Logger is capable of stealing usernames and passwords from browsers on the victim machine.[79]

S0161 XAgentOSX

XAgentOSX contains the getFirefoxPassword function to attempt to locate Firefox passwords.[80]

S0251 Zebrocy

Zebrocy has the capability to upload dumper tools that extract credentials from web browsers and store them in database files.[81]

G0128 ZIRCONIUM

ZIRCONIUM has used a tool to steal credentials from installed web browsers including Microsoft Internet Explorer and Google Chrome.[82]

Mitigations

ID Mitigation Description
M1027 Password Policies

Organizations may consider weighing the risk of storing credentials in web browsers. If web browser credential disclosure is a significant concern, technical controls, policy, and user training may be used to prevent storage of credentials in web browsers.

Detection

Identify web browser files that contain credentials such as Google Chrome’s Login Data database file: AppData\Local\Google\Chrome\User Data\Default\Login Data. Monitor file read events of web browser files that contain credentials, especially when the reading process is unrelated to the subject web browser. Monitor process execution logs to include PowerShell Transcription focusing on those that perform a combination of behaviors including reading web browser process memory, utilizing regular expressions, and those that contain numerous keywords for common web applications (Gmail, Twitter, Office365, etc.).

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