Credentials from Password Stores

Adversaries may search for common password storage locations to obtain user credentials.[1] Passwords are stored in several places on a system, depending on the operating system or application holding the credentials. There are also specific applications and services that store passwords to make them easier for users to manage and maintain, such as password managers and cloud secrets vaults. Once credentials are obtained, they can be used to perform lateral movement and access restricted information.

ID: T1555
Platforms: IaaS, Linux, Windows, macOS
Version: 1.2
Created: 11 February 2020
Last Modified: 26 February 2024

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
S0331 Agent Tesla

Agent Tesla has the ability to steal credentials from FTP clients and wireless profiles.[2]

G0064 APT33

APT33 has used a variety of publicly available tools like LaZagne to gather credentials.[3][4]

G0087 APT39

APT39 has used the Smartftp Password Decryptor tool to decrypt FTP passwords.[5]

S0373 Astaroth

Astaroth uses an external software known as NetPass to recover passwords. [6]

S0484 Carberp

Carberp's passw.plug plugin can gather account information from multiple instant messaging, email, and social media services, as well as FTP, VNC, and VPN clients.[7]

S0050 CosmicDuke

CosmicDuke collects user credentials, including passwords, for various programs including popular instant messaging applications and email clients as well as WLAN keys.[1]

S1111 DarkGate

DarkGate use Nirsoft Network Password Recovery or NetPass tools to steal stored RDP credentials in some malware versions.[8]

G0120 Evilnum

Evilnum can collect email credentials from victims.[9]

G0037 FIN6

FIN6 has used the Stealer One credential stealer to target e-mail and file transfer utilities including FTP.[10]


HEXANE has run cmdkey on victim machines to identify stored credentials.[11]


KGH_SPY can collect credentials from WINSCP.[12]

S0349 LaZagne

LaZagne can obtain credentials from databases, mail, and WiFi across multiple platforms.[13]

G0077 Leafminer

Leafminer used several tools for retrieving login and password information, including LaZagne.[14]

S0447 Lokibot

Lokibot has stolen credentials from multiple applications and data sources including Windows OS credentials, email clients, FTP, and SFTP clients.[15]

G1026 Malteiro

Malteiro has obtained credentials from mail clients via NirSoft MailPassView.[16]

S0167 Matryoshka

Matryoshka is capable of stealing Outlook passwords.[17][18]

S0002 Mimikatz

Mimikatz performs credential dumping to obtain account and password information useful in gaining access to additional systems and enterprise network resources. It contains functionality to acquire information about credentials in many ways, including from the credential vault and DPAPI.[19][20][21][22][23]

S1122 Mispadu

Mispadu has obtained credentials from mail clients via NirSoft MailPassView.[16][24][25]

G0069 MuddyWater

MuddyWater has performed credential dumping with LaZagne and other tools, including by dumping passwords saved in victim email.[26][27][28]


NETWIRE can retrieve passwords from messaging and mail client applications.[29]

G0049 OilRig

OilRig has used credential dumping tools such as LaZagne to steal credentials to accounts logged into the compromised system and to Outlook Web Access.[30][31][32][33]


OLDBAIT collects credentials from several email clients.[34]

S0048 PinchDuke

PinchDuke steals credentials from compromised hosts. PinchDuke's credential stealing functionality is believed to be based on the source code of the Pinch credential stealing malware (also known as LdPinch). Credentials targeted by PinchDuke include ones associated with many sources such as The Bat!, Yahoo!,, Passport.Net, Google Talk, and Microsoft Outlook.[1]


PLEAD has the ability to steal saved passwords from Microsoft Outlook.[35]

S0378 PoshC2

PoshC2 can decrypt passwords stored in the RDCMan configuration file.[36]

S0113 Prikormka

A module in Prikormka collects passwords stored in applications installed on the victim.[37]

S0192 Pupy

Pupy can use Lazagne for harvesting credentials.[38]

S0262 QuasarRAT

QuasarRAT can obtain passwords from common FTP clients.[39][40]

C0024 SolarWinds Compromise

During the SolarWinds Compromise, APT29 used account credentials they obtained to attempt access to Group Managed Service Account (gMSA) passwords.[41]

G0038 Stealth Falcon

Stealth Falcon malware gathers passwords from multiple sources, including Windows Credential Vault and Outlook.[42]

G1017 Volt Typhoon

Volt Typhoon has attempted to obtain credentials from OpenSSH, realvnc, and PuTTY.[43]


ID Mitigation Description
M1027 Password Policies

The password for the user's login keychain can be changed from the user's login password. This increases the complexity for an adversary because they need to know an additional password.

Organizations may consider weighing the risk of storing credentials in password stores and web browsers. If system, software, or web browser credential disclosure is a significant concern, technical controls, policy, and user training may be used to prevent storage of credentials in improper locations.

M1026 Privileged Account Management

Limit the number of accounts and services with permission to query information from password stores to only those required. Ensure that accounts and services with permissions to query password stores only have access to the secrets they require.

M1051 Update Software

Perform regular software updates to mitigate exploitation risk.


ID Data Source Data Component Detects
DS0025 Cloud Service Cloud Service Enumeration

Monitor for API calls and CLI commands that attempt to enumerate and fetch credential material from cloud secrets managers, such as get-secret-value in AWS, gcloud secrets describe in GCP, and az key vault secret show in Azure. Alert on any suspicious usages of these commands, such as an account or service generating an unusually high number of secret requests.

DS0017 Command Command Execution

Monitor executed commands and arguments that may search for common password storage locations to obtain user credentials.

DS0022 File File Access

Monitor for files being accessed that may search for common password storage locations to obtain user credentials.

DS0009 Process OS API Execution

Monitor for API calls that may search for common password storage locations to obtain user credentials.

Process Access

Monitor for processes being accessed that may search for common password storage locations to obtain user credentials.

Process Creation

Monitor newly executed processes that may search for common password storage locations to obtain user credentials.


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