System Network Configuration Discovery
Adversaries will likely look for details about the network configuration and settings of systems they access or through information discovery of remote systems. Several operating system administration utilities exist that can be used to gather this information. Examples include Arp, ipconfig/ifconfig, nbtstat, and route.
admin@338 actors used the following command after exploiting a machine with LOWBALL malware to acquire information about local networks:
|Agent Tesla||Agent Tesla can collect the IP address of the victim machine. |
|Agent.btz||Agent.btz collects the network adapter’s IP and MAC address as well as IP addresses of the network adapter’s default gateway, primary/secondary WINS, DHCP, and DNS servers, and saves them into a log file. |
APT1 used the
|APT19||APT19 used an HTTP malware variant and a Port 22 malware variant to collect the MAC address and IP address from the victim’s machine. |
|APT3||A keylogging tool used by APT3 gathers network information from the victim, including the MAC address, IP address, WINS, DHCP server, and gateway.  |
APT32 used the
|APT39||APT39 has used nbtscan to discover vulnerable systems. |
|Arp||Arp can be used to display ARP configuration information on the host.|
|Astaroth||Astaroth collects the external IP address from the system. |
|Azorult||Azorult can collect host IP information from the victim’s machine. |
|Backdoor.Oldrea||Backdoor.Oldrea collects information about the Internet adapter configuration. |
|BADCALL||BADCALL collects the network adapter information. |
Bisonal can execute
|BlackEnergy||BlackEnergy has gathered information about network IP configurations using ipconfig.exe and about routing tables using route.exe.  |
|Brave Prince||Brave Prince gathers network configuration information as well as the ARP cache. |
Calisto runs the
Carbon can collect the IP address of the victims and other computers on the network using the commands:
|Catchamas||Catchamas gathers the Mac address, IP address, and the network adapter information from the victim’s machine. |
|Crimson||Crimson contains a command to collect the victim MAC address and LAN IP. |
|Darkhotel||Darkhotel has collected the IP address and network adapter information from the victim’s machine. |
|Dragonfly 2.0||Dragonfly 2.0 used batch scripts to enumerate network information, including information about trusts, zones, and the domain. |
|Duqu||The reconnaissance modules used with Duqu can collect information on network configuration. |
Emissary has the capability to execute the command
|Empire||Empire can acquire network configuration information like DNS servers and network proxies used by a host. |
Epic uses the
|FALLCHILL||FALLCHILL collects MAC address and local IP address information from the victim. |
|Felismus||Felismus collects the victim LAN IP address and sends it to the C2 server. |
|FELIXROOT||FELIXROOT collects information about the network including the IP address and DHCP server. |
|GeminiDuke||GeminiDuke collects information on network settings and Internet proxy settings from the victim. |
|GravityRAT||GravityRAT collects the victim IP address, MAC address, as well as the victim account domain name. |
|Hydraq||Hydraq creates a backdoor through which remote attackers can retrieve IP addresses of compromised machines.  |
|ifconfig||ifconfig can be used to display adapter configuration on Unix systems, including information for TCP/IP, DNS, and DHCP.|
|iKitten||iKitten will look for the current IP address. |
|InvisiMole||InvisiMole gathers informatin on the IP forwarding table, MAC address, and network SSID. |
|ipconfig||ipconfig can be used to display adapter configuration on Windows systems, including information for TCP/IP, DNS, and DHCP.|
|Ixeshe||Ixeshe enumerates the IP address, network proxy settings, and domain name from a victim's system. |
|JHUHUGIT||A JHUHUGIT variant gathers network interface card information. |
|JPIN||JPIN can obtain network information, including DNS, IP, and proxies. |
|jRAT||jRAT can gather victim internal and external IPs. |
|Kazuar||Kazuar gathers information about network adapters. |
Ke3chang performs local network configuration discovery using
|KeyBoy||KeyBoy can determine the public or WAN IP address for the system. |
|KEYMARBLE||KEYMARBLE gathers the MAC address of the victim’s machine. |
|Koadic||Koadic can retrieve information about the Windows domain. |
|KONNI||KONNI can collect the IP address from the victim’s machine. |
Kwampirs collects network adapter and interface information by using the commands
|Lazarus Group||Lazarus Group malware IndiaIndia obtains and sends to its C2 server information about the first network interface card’s configuration, including IP address, gateways, subnet mask, DHCP information, and whether WINS is available.  |
LightNeuron gathers information about network adapters using the Win32 API call
|Magic Hound||Magic Hound malware gathers the victim's local IP address, MAC address, and external IP address. |
|menuPass||menuPass has used several tools to scan for open NetBIOS nameservers and enumerate NetBIOS sessions. |
Mis-Type may create a file containing the results of the command
|MoonWind||MoonWind obtains the victim IP address. |
|More_eggs||More_eggs has the capability to gather the IP address from the victim's machine. |
Mosquito uses the
|MuddyWater||MuddyWater has used malware to collect the victim’s IP address and domain name. |
|Naid||Naid collects the domain name from a compromised host. |
Naikon uses commands such as
|NanHaiShu||NanHaiShu can gather information about the victim proxy server. |
|NanoCore||NanoCore gathers the IP address from the victim’s machine. |
|nbtstat||nbtstat can be used to discover local NetBIOS domain names.|
Nltest may be used to enumerate the parent domain of a local machine using
|NOKKI||NOKKI can gather information on the victim IP address. |
|OceanSalt||OceanSalt can collect the victim’s IP address. |
|Octopus||Octopus collects the host IP address from the victim’s machine. |
OilRig has run
|Olympic Destroyer||Olympic Destroyer uses API calls to enumerate the infected system's ARP table. |
|Orz||Orz can gather victim proxy information. |
|OSInfo||OSInfo discovers the current domain information. |
|Pisloader||Pisloader has a command to collect the victim's IP address. |
PLAINTEE uses the
|PoshC2||PoshC2 can enumerate network adapter information. |
|PowerDuke||PowerDuke has a command to get the victim's domain and NetBIOS name. |
|POWERSTATS||POWERSTATS can retrieve IP and network adapter configuration information from compromised hosts. |
POWRUNER may collect network configuration data by running
|Prikormka||A module in Prikormka collects information from the victim about its IP addresses and MAC addresses. |
|Proxysvc||Proxysvc collects the network adapter information and domain/username information based on current remote sessions. |
|Pupy||Pupy has built in commands to identify a host’s IP address and find out other network configuration settings by viewing connected sessions. |
|QUADAGENT||QUADAGENT gathers the current domain the victim system belongs to. |
RATANKBA gathers the victim’s IP address via the
|Reaver||Reaver collects the victim's IP address. |
|RedLeaves||RedLeaves can obtain information about network parameters. |
|Remsec||Remsec can obtain information about network configuration, including the routing table, ARP cache, and DNS cache. |
|Revenge RAT||Revenge RAT collects the IP address and MAC address from the system. |
|RogueRobin||RogueRobin gathers the IP address and domain from the victim’s machine. |
|route||route can be used to discover routing configuration information.|
|Shamoon||Shamoon obtains the target's IP address and local network segment. |
Soft Cell used
SpeakUp uses the
|Stealth Falcon||Stealth Falcon malware gathers the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table from the victim. |
Sykipot may use
|Sys10||Sys10 collects the local IP address of the victim and sends it to the C2. |
|T9000||T9000 gathers and beacons the MAC and IP addresses during installation. |
|Threat Group-3390||Threat Group-3390 actors use nbtscan to discover vulnerable systems. |
|TrickBot||TrickBot obtains the IP address and other relevant network information from the victim’s machine.  |
Turla surveys a system upon check-in to discover network configuration details using the
|Unknown Logger||Unknown Logger can obtain information about the victim's IP address. |
|UPPERCUT||UPPERCUT has the capability to gather the victim's proxy information. |
|VERMIN||VERMIN gathers the local IP address. |
|Volgmer||Volgmer can gather the IP address from the victim's machine. |
|WannaCry||WannaCry will attempt to determine the local network segment it is a part of. |
|Xbash||Xbash can collect IP addresses and local intranet information from a victim’s machine. |
Zebrocy runs the
|ZeroT||ZeroT gathers the victim's IP address and domain information, and then sends it to its C2 server. |
|zwShell||zwShell can obtain the victim IP address. |
This type of attack technique cannot be easily mitigated with preventive controls since it is based on the abuse of system features.
System and network discovery techniques normally occur throughout an operation as an adversary learns the environment. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as Lateral Movement, based on the information obtained.
Monitor processes and command-line arguments for actions that could be taken to gather system and network information. Remote access tools with built-in features may interact directly with the Windows API to gather information. Information may also be acquired through Windows system management tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.
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