System Network Configuration Discovery

Adversaries may look for details about the network configuration and settings, such as IP and/or MAC addresses, of systems they access or through information discovery of remote systems. Several operating system administration utilities exist that can be used to gather this information. Examples include Arp, ipconfig/ifconfig, nbtstat, and route.

Adversaries may also leverage a Network Device CLI on network devices to gather information about configurations and settings, such as IP addresses of configured interfaces and static/dynamic routes (e.g. show ip route, show ip interface).[1][2]

Adversaries may use the information from System Network Configuration Discovery during automated discovery to shape follow-on behaviors, including determining certain access within the target network and what actions to do next.

ID: T1016
Sub-techniques:  T1016.001
Tactic: Discovery
Platforms: Linux, Network, Windows, macOS
CAPEC ID: CAPEC-309
Contributors: Austin Clark, @c2defense
Version: 1.5
Created: 31 May 2017
Last Modified: 06 September 2022

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
S1028 Action RAT

Action RAT has the ability to collect the MAC address of an infected host.[3]

S0552 AdFind

AdFind can extract subnet information from Active Directory.[4][5][6]

G0018 admin@338

admin@338 actors used the following command after exploiting a machine with LOWBALL malware to acquire information about local networks: ipconfig /all >> %temp%\download[7]

S0331 Agent Tesla

Agent Tesla can collect the IP address of the victim machine and spawn instances of netsh.exe to enumerate wireless settings.[8][9]

S0092 Agent.btz

Agent.btz collects the network adapter’s IP and MAC address as well as IP addresses of the network adapter’s default gateway, primary/secondary WINS, DHCP, and DNS servers, and saves them into a log file.[10]

S1025 Amadey

Amadey can identify the IP address of a victim machine.[11]

S0504 Anchor

Anchor can determine the public IP and location of a compromised host.[12]

S0622 AppleSeed

AppleSeed can identify the IP of a targeted system.[13]

G0006 APT1

APT1 used the ipconfig /all command to gather network configuration information.[14]

G0073 APT19

APT19 used an HTTP malware variant and a Port 22 malware variant to collect the MAC address and IP address from the victim’s machine.[15]

G0022 APT3

A keylogging tool used by APT3 gathers network information from the victim, including the MAC address, IP address, WINS, DHCP server, and gateway.[16][17]

G0050 APT32

APT32 used the ipconfig /all command to gather the IP address from the system.[18]

G0096 APT41

APT41 collected MAC addresses from victim machines.[19][20]

S0456 Aria-body

Aria-body has the ability to identify the location, public IP address, and domain name on a compromised host.[21]

S0099 Arp

Arp can be used to display ARP configuration information on the host.[22]

S0373 Astaroth

Astaroth collects the external IP address from the system. [23]

S0640 Avaddon

Avaddon can collect the external IP address of the victim.[24]

S0473 Avenger

Avenger can identify the domain of the compromised host.[25]

S0344 Azorult

Azorult can collect host IP information from the victim’s machine.[26]

S0414 BabyShark

BabyShark has executed the ipconfig /all command.[27]

S0093 Backdoor.Oldrea

Backdoor.Oldrea collects information about the Internet adapter configuration.[28][29]

S0245 BADCALL

BADCALL collects the network adapter information.[30]

S0642 BADFLICK

BADFLICK has captured victim IP address details.[31]

S0234 Bandook

Bandook has a command to get the public IP address from a system.[32]

S0534 Bazar

Bazar can collect the IP address and NetBIOS name of an infected machine.[33]

S0268 Bisonal

Bisonal can execute ipconfig on the victim’s machine.[34][35][36]

S0089 BlackEnergy

BlackEnergy has gathered information about network IP configurations using ipconfig.exe and about routing tables using route.exe.[37][38]

S0520 BLINDINGCAN

BLINDINGCAN has collected the victim machine's local IP address information and MAC address.[39]

S0657 BLUELIGHT

BLUELIGHT can collect IP information from the victim’s machine.[40]

S0486 Bonadan

Bonadan can find the external IP address of the infected host.[41]

S0651 BoxCaon

BoxCaon can collect the victim's MAC address by using the GetAdaptersInfo API.[42]

S0252 Brave Prince

Brave Prince gathers network configuration information as well as the ARP cache.[43]

C0015 C0015

During C0015, the threat actors used code to obtain the external public-facing IPv4 address of the compromised host.[44]

S0274 Calisto

Calisto runs the ifconfig command to obtain the IP address from the victim’s machine.[45]

S0335 Carbon

Carbon can collect the IP address of the victims and other computers on the network using the commands: ipconfig -all nbtstat -n, and nbtstat -s.[46][47]

S0261 Catchamas

Catchamas gathers the Mac address, IP address, and the network adapter information from the victim’s machine.[48]

S0572 Caterpillar WebShell

Caterpillar WebShell can gather the IP address from the victim's machine using the IP config command.[49]

S0674 CharmPower

CharmPower has the ability to use ipconfig to enumerate system network settings.[50]

G0114 Chimera

Chimera has used ipconfig, Ping, and tracert to enumerate the IP address and network environment and settings of the local host.[51]

S0667 Chrommme

Chrommme can enumerate the IP address of a compromised host.[52]

S0660 Clambling

Clambling can enumerate the IP address of a compromised machine.[53][54]

S0154 Cobalt Strike

Cobalt Strike can determine the NetBios name and the IP addresses of targets machines including domain controllers.[55][56]

S0244 Comnie

Comnie uses ipconfig /all and route PRINT to identify network adapter and interface information.[57]

S0575 Conti

Conti can retrieve the ARP cache from the local system by using the GetIpNetTable() API call and check to ensure IP addresses it connects to are for local, non-Internet, systems.[58]

S0488 CrackMapExec

CrackMapExec can collect DNS information from the targeted system.[59]

S1024 CreepySnail

CreepySnail can use getmac and Get-NetIPAddress to enumerate network settings.[60]

S0115 Crimson

Crimson contains a command to collect the victim MAC address and LAN IP.[61][62]

S0625 Cuba

Cuba can retrieve the ARP cache from the local system by using GetIpNetTable.[63]

S0687 Cyclops Blink

Cyclops Blink can use the Linux API if_nameindex to gather network interface names.[64][65]

G0012 Darkhotel

Darkhotel has collected the IP address and network adapter information from the victim’s machine.[66][67]

S0354 Denis

Denis uses ipconfig to gather the IP address from the system.[18]

S0659 Diavol

Diavol can enumerate victims' local and external IPs when registering with C2.[68]

S0472 down_new

down_new has the ability to identify the MAC address of a compromised host.[25]

G0035 Dragonfly

Dragonfly has used batch scripts to enumerate network information, including information about trusts, zones, and the domain.[69]

S0567 Dtrack

Dtrack can collect the host's IP addresses using the ipconfig command.[70][71]

S0038 Duqu

The reconnaissance modules used with Duqu can collect information on network configuration.[72]

S0024 Dyre

Dyre has the ability to identify network settings on a compromised host.[73]

G1006 Earth Lusca

Earth Lusca used the command ipconfig to obtain information about network configurations.[74]

S0605 EKANS

EKANS can determine the domain of a compromised host.[75]

S0081 Elise

Elise executes ipconfig /all after initial communication is made to the remote server.[76][77]

S0082 Emissary

Emissary has the capability to execute the command ipconfig /all.[78]

S0363 Empire

Empire can acquire network configuration information like DNS servers, public IP, and network proxies used by a host.[79][80]

S0091 Epic

Epic uses the nbtstat -n and nbtstat -s commands on the victim’s machine.[81]

S0569 Explosive

Explosive has collected the MAC address from the victim's machine.[82]

S0181 FALLCHILL

FALLCHILL collects MAC address and local IP address information from the victim.[83]

S0512 FatDuke

FatDuke can identify the MAC address on the target computer.[84]

S0171 Felismus

Felismus collects the victim LAN IP address and sends it to the C2 server.[85]

S0267 FELIXROOT

FELIXROOT collects information about the network including the IP address and DHCP server.[86]

S0696 Flagpro

Flagpro has been used to execute the ipconfig /all command on a victim system.[87]

C0001 Frankenstein

During Frankenstein, the threat actors used Empire to find the public IP address of a compromised system.[80]

S1044 FunnyDream

FunnyDream can parse the ProxyServer string in the Registry to discover http proxies.[88]

C0007 FunnyDream

During FunnyDream, the threat actors used ipconfig for discovery on remote systems.[88]

G0093 GALLIUM

GALLIUM used ipconfig /all to obtain information about the victim network configuration. The group also ran a modified version of NBTscan to identify available NetBIOS name servers.[89]

S0049 GeminiDuke

GeminiDuke collects information on network settings and Internet proxy settings from the victim.[90]

S0588 GoldMax

GoldMax retrieved a list of the system's network interface after execution.[91]

S0531 Grandoreiro

Grandoreiro can determine the IP and physical location of the compromised host via IPinfo.[92]

S0237 GravityRAT

GravityRAT collects the victim IP address, MAC address, as well as the victim account domain name.[93]

S0690 Green Lambert

Green Lambert can obtain proxy information from a victim's machine using system environment variables.[94][95]

S0632 GrimAgent

GrimAgent can enumerate the IP and domain of a target system.[96]

G1001 HEXANE

HEXANE has used Ping and tracert for network discovery.[97]

G0126 Higaisa

Higaisa used ipconfig to gather network configuration information.[98][99]

S0431 HotCroissant

HotCroissant has the ability to identify the IP address of the compromised machine.[100]

S0203 Hydraq

Hydraq creates a backdoor through which remote attackers can retrieve IP addresses of compromised machines.[101][102]

S1022 IceApple

The IceApple ifconfig module can iterate over all network interfaces on the host and retrieve the name, description, MAC address, DNS suffix, DNS servers, gateways, IPv4 addresses, and subnet masks.[103]

S0101 ifconfig

ifconfig can be used to display adapter configuration on Unix systems, including information for TCP/IP, DNS, and DHCP.

S0278 iKitten

iKitten will look for the current IP address.[104]

S0604 Industroyer

Industroyer’s 61850 payload component enumerates connected network adapters and their corresponding IP addresses.[105]

S0260 InvisiMole

InvisiMole gathers information on the IP forwarding table, MAC address, configured proxy, and network SSID.[106][107]

S0100 ipconfig

ipconfig can be used to display adapter configuration on Windows systems, including information for TCP/IP, DNS, and DHCP.

S0015 Ixeshe

Ixeshe enumerates the IP address, network proxy settings, and domain name from a victim's system.[108]

S0044 JHUHUGIT

A JHUHUGIT variant gathers network interface card information.[109]

S0201 JPIN

JPIN can obtain network information, including DNS, IP, and proxies.[110]

S0283 jRAT

jRAT can gather victim internal and external IPs.[111]

S0265 Kazuar

Kazuar gathers information about network adapters.[112]

G0004 Ke3chang

Ke3chang has performed local network configuration discovery using ipconfig.[113][114][115]

S0487 Kessel

Kessel has collected the DNS address of the infected host.[41]

S1020 Kevin

Kevin can collect the MAC address and other information from a victim machine using ipconfig/all.[97]

S0387 KeyBoy

KeyBoy can determine the public or WAN IP address for the system.[116]

S0271 KEYMARBLE

KEYMARBLE gathers the MAC address of the victim’s machine.[117]

G0094 Kimsuky

Kimsuky has used ipconfig/all to gather network configuration information.[118]

S0250 Koadic

Koadic can retrieve the contents of the IP routing table as well as information about the Windows domain.[119][120]

S0641 Kobalos

Kobalos can record the IP address of the target machine.[121]

S0356 KONNI

KONNI can collect the IP address from the victim’s machine.[122]

S0236 Kwampirs

Kwampirs collects network adapter and interface information by using the commands ipconfig /all, arp -a and route print. It also collects the system's MAC address with getmac and domain configuration with net config workstation.[123]

G0032 Lazarus Group

Lazarus Group malware IndiaIndia obtains and sends to its C2 server information about the first network interface card’s configuration, including IP address, gateways, subnet mask, DHCP information, and whether WINS is available.[124][125]

S0395 LightNeuron

LightNeuron gathers information about network adapters using the Win32 API call GetAdaptersInfo.[126]

S0513 LiteDuke

LiteDuke has the ability to discover the proxy configuration of Firefox and/or Opera.[84]

S0681 Lizar

Lizar can retrieve network information from a compromised host.[127]

S0447 Lokibot

Lokibot has the ability to discover the domain name of the infected host.[128]

S0451 LoudMiner

LoudMiner used a script to gather the IP address of the infected machine before sending to the C2.[129]

S0532 Lucifer

Lucifer can collect the IP address of a compromised host.[130]

S0409 Machete

Machete collects the MAC address of the target computer and other network configuration information.[131][132]

S1016 MacMa

MacMa can collect IP addresses from a compromised host.[133]

G0059 Magic Hound

Magic Hound malware gathers the victim's local IP address, MAC address, and external IP address.[134][135]

G0045 menuPass

menuPass has used several tools to scan for open NetBIOS nameservers and enumerate NetBIOS sessions.[136]

S1015 Milan

Milan can run C:\Windows\system32\cmd.exe /c cmd /c ipconfig /all 2>&1 to discover network settings.[137]

S0084 Mis-Type

Mis-Type may create a file containing the results of the command cmd.exe /c ipconfig /all.[138]

S0149 MoonWind

MoonWind obtains the victim IP address.[139]

S0284 More_eggs

More_eggs has the capability to gather the IP address from the victim's machine.[140]

G1009 Moses Staff

Moses Staff has collected the domain name of a compromised network.[141]

S0256 Mosquito

Mosquito uses the ipconfig command.[142]

G0069 MuddyWater

MuddyWater has used malware to collect the victim’s IP address and domain name.[143]

G0129 Mustang Panda

Mustang Panda has used ipconfig and arp to determine network configuration information.[144]

S0205 Naid

Naid collects the domain name from a compromised host.[145]

G0019 Naikon

Naikon uses commands such as netsh interface show to discover network interface settings.[146]

S0228 NanHaiShu

NanHaiShu can gather information about the victim proxy server.[147]

S0336 NanoCore

NanoCore gathers the IP address from the victim’s machine.[148]

S0590 NBTscan

NBTscan can be used to collect MAC addresses.[149][150]

S0102 nbtstat

nbtstat can be used to discover local NetBIOS domain names.

S0691 Neoichor

Neoichor can gather the IP address from an infected host.[115]

S0198 NETWIRE

NETWIRE can collect the IP address of a compromised host.[151][152]

S0359 Nltest

Nltest may be used to enumerate the parent domain of a local machine using /parentdomain.[153]

S0353 NOKKI

NOKKI can gather information on the victim IP address.[154]

S0346 OceanSalt

OceanSalt can collect the victim’s IP address.[155]

S0340 Octopus

Octopus can collect the host IP address from the victim’s machine.[156]

G0049 OilRig

OilRig has run ipconfig /all on a victim.[157][158]

S0439 Okrum

Okrum can collect network information, including the host IP address, DNS, and proxy information.[159]

S0365 Olympic Destroyer

Olympic Destroyer uses API calls to enumerate the infected system's ARP table.[160]

C0012 Operation CuckooBees

During Operation CuckooBees, the threat actors used ipconfig, nbtstat, tracert, route print, and cat /etc/hosts commands.[161]

C0014 Operation Wocao

During Operation Wocao, threat actors discovered the local network configuration with ipconfig.[162]

S0229 Orz

Orz can gather victim proxy information.[147]

S0165 OSInfo

OSInfo discovers the current domain information.[16]

S0352 OSX_OCEANLOTUS.D

OSX_OCEANLOTUS.D can collect the network interface MAC address on the infected host.[163][164]

S0556 Pay2Key

Pay2Key can identify the IP and MAC addresses of the compromised host.[165]

S1050 PcShare

PcShare can obtain the proxy settings of a compromised machine using InternetQueryOptionA and its IP address by running nslookup myip.opendns.comresolver1.opendns.com\r\n.[88]

S0587 Penquin

Penquin can report the IP of the compromised host to attacker controlled infrastructure.[166]

S1031 PingPull

PingPull can retrieve the IP address of a compromised host.[167]

S0501 PipeMon

PipeMon can collect and send the local IP address, RDP information, and the network adapter physical address as a part of its C2 beacon.[168]

S0124 Pisloader

Pisloader has a command to collect the victim's IP address.[169]

S0254 PLAINTEE

PLAINTEE uses the ipconfig /all command to gather the victim’s IP address.[170]

S0378 PoshC2

PoshC2 can enumerate network adapter information.[171]

S0139 PowerDuke

PowerDuke has a command to get the victim's domain and NetBIOS name.[172]

S0441 PowerShower

PowerShower has the ability to identify the current Windows domain of the infected host.[173]

S0223 POWERSTATS

POWERSTATS can retrieve IP, network adapter configuration information, and domain from compromised hosts.[174][175]

S0184 POWRUNER

POWRUNER may collect network configuration data by running ipconfig /all on a victim.[176]

S0113 Prikormka

A module in Prikormka collects information from the victim about its IP addresses and MAC addresses.[177]

S0238 Proxysvc

Proxysvc collects the network adapter information and domain/username information based on current remote sessions.[178]

S0192 Pupy

Pupy has built in commands to identify a host’s IP address and find out other network configuration settings by viewing connected sessions.[179]

S0583 Pysa

Pysa can perform network reconnaissance using the Advanced IP Scanner tool.[180]

S0650 QakBot

QakBot can use net config workstation, arp -a, and ipconfig /all to gather network configuration information.[181][182][183]

S0269 QUADAGENT

QUADAGENT gathers the current domain the victim system belongs to.[184]

S0262 QuasarRAT

QuasarRAT has the ability to enumerate the Wide Area Network (WAN) IP through requests to ip-api[.]com, freegeoip[.]net, or api[.]ipify[.]org observed with user-agent string Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; rv:48.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/48.0.[185]

S0458 Ramsay

Ramsay can use ipconfig and Arp to collect network configuration information, including routing information and ARP tables.[186]

S0241 RATANKBA

RATANKBA gathers the victim’s IP address via the ipconfig -all command.[187][188]

S0172 Reaver

Reaver collects the victim's IP address.[189]

S0153 RedLeaves

RedLeaves can obtain information about network parameters.[136]

S0125 Remsec

Remsec can obtain information about network configuration, including the routing table, ARP cache, and DNS cache.[190]

S0379 Revenge RAT

Revenge RAT collects the IP address and MAC address from the system.[191]

S0433 Rifdoor

Rifdoor has the ability to identify the IP address of the compromised host.[192]

S0448 Rising Sun

Rising Sun can detect network adapter and IP address information.[193]

S0270 RogueRobin

RogueRobin gathers the IP address and domain from the victim’s machine.[194]

S0103 route

route can be used to discover routing configuration information.

S0446 Ryuk

Ryuk has called GetIpNetTable in attempt to identify all mounted drives and hosts that have Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) entries.[195][196]

S0085 S-Type

S-Type has used ipconfig /all on a compromised host.[138]

S1018 Saint Bot

Saint Bot can collect the IP address of a victim machine.[197]

G0034 Sandworm Team

Sandworm Team checks for connectivity to other resources in the network.[198]

S0461 SDBbot

SDBbot has the ability to determine the domain name and whether a proxy is configured on a compromised host.[199]

S0596 ShadowPad

ShadowPad has collected the domain name of the victim system.[200]

S0140 Shamoon

Shamoon obtains the target's IP address and local network segment.[201][202]

S0450 SHARPSTATS

SHARPSTATS has the ability to identify the domain of the compromised host.[175]

S0445 ShimRatReporter

ShimRatReporter gathered the local proxy, domain, IP, routing tables, mac address, gateway, DNS servers, and DHCP status information from an infected host.[203]

S0589 Sibot

Sibot checked if the compromised system is configured to use proxies.[91]

G1008 SideCopy

SideCopy has identified the IP address of a compromised host.[3]

S0610 SideTwist

SideTwist has the ability to collect the domain name on a compromised host.[204]

G0121 Sidewinder

Sidewinder has used malware to collect information on network interfaces, including the MAC address.[205]

S0633 Sliver

Sliver has the ability to gather network configuration information.[206]

S1035 Small Sieve

Small Sieve can obtain the IP address of a victim host.[207]

S0516 SoreFang

SoreFang can collect the TCP/IP, DNS, DHCP, and network adapter configuration on a compromised host via ipconfig.exe /all.[208]

S0374 SpeakUp

SpeakUp uses the ifconfig -a command. [209]

S0646 SpicyOmelette

SpicyOmelette can identify the IP of a compromised system.[210]

S1030 Squirrelwaffle

Squirrelwaffle has collected the victim’s external IP address.[211]

S1037 STARWHALE

STARWHALE has the ability to collect the IP address of an infected host.[212]

G0038 Stealth Falcon

Stealth Falcon malware gathers the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table from the victim.[213]

S0491 StrongPity

StrongPity can identify the IP address of a compromised host.[214]

S0603 Stuxnet

Stuxnet collects the IP address of a compromised system.[215]

S0559 SUNBURST

SUNBURST collected all network interface MAC addresses that are up and not loopback devices, as well as IP address, DHCP configuration, and domain information.[216]

S0018 Sykipot

Sykipot may use ipconfig /all to gather system network configuration details.[217]

S0060 Sys10

Sys10 collects the local IP address of the victim and sends it to the C2.[146]

S0098 T9000

T9000 gathers and beacons the MAC and IP addresses during installation.[218]

S0011 Taidoor

Taidoor has collected the MAC address of a compromised host; it can also use GetAdaptersInfo to identify network adapters.[219][220]

S0467 TajMahal

TajMahal has the ability to identify the MAC address on an infected host.[221]

G0139 TeamTNT

TeamTNT has enumerated the host machine’s IP address.[222]

G0027 Threat Group-3390

Threat Group-3390 actors use NBTscan to discover vulnerable systems.[223]

S0678 Torisma

Torisma can collect the local MAC address using GetAdaptersInfo as well as the system's IP address.[224]

S0266 TrickBot

TrickBot obtains the IP address, location, and other relevant network information from the victim’s machine.[225][226][55]

S0094 Trojan.Karagany

Trojan.Karagany can gather information on the network configuration of a compromised host.[227]

G0081 Tropic Trooper

Tropic Trooper has used scripts to collect the host's network topology.[228]

S0436 TSCookie

TSCookie has the ability to identify the IP of the infected host.[229]

S0647 Turian

Turian can retrieve the internal IP address of a compromised host.[230]

G0010 Turla

Turla surveys a system upon check-in to discover network configuration details using the arp -a, nbtstat -n, net config, ipconfig /all, and route commands, as well as NBTscan.[81][231][232] Turla RPC backdoors have also retrieved registered RPC interface information from process memory.[233]

S0130 Unknown Logger

Unknown Logger can obtain information about the victim's IP address.[234]

S0275 UPPERCUT

UPPERCUT has the capability to gather the victim's proxy information.[235]

S0452 USBferry

USBferry can detect the infected machine's network topology using ipconfig and arp.[228]

S0476 Valak

Valak has the ability to identify the domain and the MAC and IP addresses of an infected machine.[236]

S0257 VERMIN

VERMIN gathers the local IP address.[237]

S0180 Volgmer

Volgmer can gather the IP address from the victim's machine.[238]

S0366 WannaCry

WannaCry will attempt to determine the local network segment it is a part of.[239]

S0515 WellMail

WellMail can identify the IP address of the victim system.[240]

S0514 WellMess

WellMess can identify the IP address and user domain on the target machine.[241][242]

G0102 Wizard Spider

Wizard Spider has used "ipconfig" to identify the network configuration of a victim machine.[243]

S0341 Xbash

Xbash can collect IP addresses and local intranet information from a victim’s machine.[244]

S0653 xCaon

xCaon has used the GetAdaptersInfo() API call to get the victim's MAC address.[42]

S0248 yty

yty runs ipconfig /all and collects the domain name.[245]

S0251 Zebrocy

Zebrocy runs the ipconfig /all command.[246]

S0230 ZeroT

ZeroT gathers the victim's IP address and domain information, and then sends it to its C2 server.[247]

G0128 ZIRCONIUM

ZIRCONIUM has used a tool to enumerate proxy settings in the target environment.[248]

S0350 zwShell

zwShell can obtain the victim IP address.[249]

Mitigations

This type of attack technique cannot be easily mitigated with preventive controls since it is based on the abuse of system features.

Detection

ID Data Source Data Component Detects
DS0017 Command Command Execution

Monitor executed commands and arguments that may look for details about the network configuration and settings, such as IP and/or MAC addresses, of systems they access or through information discovery of remote systems. For network devices, monitor executed commands in AAA logs, especially those run by unexpected or unauthorized users.

DS0009 Process OS API Execution

Monitor for API calls (such as GetAdaptersInfo() and GetIpNetTable()) that may gather details about the network configuration and settings, such as IP and/or MAC addresses.

Process Creation

Monitor for executed processes (such as ipconfig/ifconfig and arp) with arguments that may look for details about the network configuration and settings, such as IP and/or MAC addresses.

DS0012 Script Script Execution

Monitor for any attempts to enable scripts running on a system would be considered suspicious. If scripts are not commonly used on a system, but enabled, scripts running out of cycle from patching or other administrator functions are suspicious. Scripts should be captured from the file system when possible to determine their actions and intent.

References

  1. US-CERT. (2018, April 20). Alert (TA18-106A) Russian State-Sponsored Cyber Actors Targeting Network Infrastructure Devices. Retrieved October 19, 2020.
  2. Gyler, C.,Perez D.,Jones, S.,Miller, S.. (2021, February 25). This is Not a Test: APT41 Initiates Global Intrusion Campaign Using Multiple Exploits. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
  3. Threat Intelligence Team. (2021, December 2). SideCopy APT: Connecting lures victims, payloads to infrastructure. Retrieved June 13, 2022.
  4. Brian Donohue, Katie Nickels, Paul Michaud, Adina Bodkins, Taylor Chapman, Tony Lambert, Jeff Felling, Kyle Rainey, Mike Haag, Matt Graeber, Aaron Didier.. (2020, October 29). A Bazar start: How one hospital thwarted a Ryuk ransomware outbreak. Retrieved October 30, 2020.
  5. McKeague, B. et al. (2019, April 5). Pick-Six: Intercepting a FIN6 Intrusion, an Actor Recently Tied to Ryuk and LockerGoga Ransomware. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  6. Goody, K., et al (2019, January 11). A Nasty Trick: From Credential Theft Malware to Business Disruption. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
  7. FireEye Threat Intelligence. (2015, December 1). China-based Cyber Threat Group Uses Dropbox for Malware Communications and Targets Hong Kong Media Outlets. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
  8. The DigiTrust Group. (2017, January 12). The Rise of Agent Tesla. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  9. Walter, J. (2020, August 10). Agent Tesla | Old RAT Uses New Tricks to Stay on Top. Retrieved December 11, 2020.
  10. Shevchenko, S.. (2008, November 30). Agent.btz - A Threat That Hit Pentagon. Retrieved April 8, 2016.
  11. Kasuya, M. (2020, January 8). Threat Spotlight: Amadey Bot Targets Non-Russian Users. Retrieved July 14, 2022.
  12. Grange, W. (2020, July 13). Anchor_dns malware goes cross platform. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
  13. Jazi, H. (2021, June 1). Kimsuky APT continues to target South Korean government using AppleSeed backdoor. Retrieved June 10, 2021.
  14. Mandiant. (n.d.). APT1 Exposing One of China’s Cyber Espionage Units. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
  15. Grunzweig, J., Lee, B. (2016, January 22). New Attacks Linked to C0d0so0 Group. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
  16. Symantec Security Response. (2016, September 6). Buckeye cyberespionage group shifts gaze from US to Hong Kong. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
  17. Yates, M. (2017, June 18). APT3 Uncovered: The code evolution of Pirpi. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
  18. Dahan, A. (2017). Operation Cobalt Kitty. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
  19. Fraser, N., et al. (2019, August 7). Double DragonAPT41, a dual espionage and cyber crime operation APT41. Retrieved September 23, 2019.
  20. Rostovcev, N. (2021, June 10). Big airline heist APT41 likely behind a third-party attack on Air India. Retrieved August 26, 2021.
  21. CheckPoint. (2020, May 7). Naikon APT: Cyber Espionage Reloaded. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  22. Microsoft. (n.d.). Arp. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
  23. Doaty, J., Garrett, P.. (2018, September 10). We’re Seeing a Resurgence of the Demonic Astaroth WMIC Trojan. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  24. Gahlot, A. (n.d.). Threat Hunting for Avaddon Ransomware. Retrieved August 19, 2021.
  25. Chen, J. et al. (2019, November). Operation ENDTRADE: TICK’s Multi-Stage Backdoors for Attacking Industries and Stealing Classified Data. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  26. Yan, T., et al. (2018, November 21). New Wine in Old Bottle: New Azorult Variant Found in FindMyName Campaign using Fallout Exploit Kit. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  27. Unit 42. (2019, February 22). New BabyShark Malware Targets U.S. National Security Think Tanks. Retrieved October 7, 2019.
  28. Symantec Security Response. (2014, June 30). Dragonfly: Cyberespionage Attacks Against Energy Suppliers. Retrieved April 8, 2016.
  29. Slowik, J. (2021, October). THE BAFFLING BERSERK BEAR: A DECADE’S ACTIVITY TARGETING CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE. Retrieved December 6, 2021.
  30. US-CERT. (2018, February 06). Malware Analysis Report (MAR) - 10135536-G. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
  31. Accenture iDefense Unit. (2019, March 5). Mudcarp's Focus on Submarine Technologies. Retrieved August 24, 2021.
  32. Check Point. (2020, November 26). Bandook: Signed & Delivered. Retrieved May 31, 2021.
  33. Cybereason Nocturnus. (2020, July 16). A BAZAR OF TRICKS: FOLLOWING TEAM9’S DEVELOPMENT CYCLES. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  34. Hayashi, K., Ray, V. (2018, July 31). Bisonal Malware Used in Attacks Against Russia and South Korea. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
  35. Zykov, K. (2020, August 13). CactusPete APT group’s updated Bisonal backdoor. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  36. Mercer, W., et al. (2020, March 5). Bisonal: 10 years of play. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
  37. F-Secure Labs. (2014). BlackEnergy & Quedagh: The convergence of crimeware and APT attacks. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
  38. Baumgartner, K. and Garnaeva, M.. (2014, November 3). BE2 custom plugins, router abuse, and target profiles. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
  39. US-CERT. (2020, August 19). MAR-10295134-1.v1 – North Korean Remote Access Trojan: BLINDINGCAN. Retrieved August 19, 2020.
  40. Cash, D., Grunzweig, J., Meltzer, M., Adair, S., Lancaster, T. (2021, August 17). North Korean APT InkySquid Infects Victims Using Browser Exploits. Retrieved September 30, 2021.
  41. Dumont, R., M.Léveillé, M., Porcher, H. (2018, December 1). THE DARK SIDE OF THE FORSSHE A landscape of OpenSSH backdoors. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  42. CheckPoint Research. (2021, July 1). IndigoZebra APT continues to attack Central Asia with evolving tools. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
  43. Sherstobitoff, R., Saavedra-Morales, J. (2018, February 02). Gold Dragon Widens Olympics Malware Attacks, Gains Permanent Presence on Victims’ Systems. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  44. DFIR Report. (2021, November 29). CONTInuing the Bazar Ransomware Story. Retrieved September 29, 2022.
  45. Kuzin, M., Zelensky S. (2018, July 20). Calisto Trojan for macOS. Retrieved September 7, 2018.
  46. ESET. (2017, March 30). Carbon Paper: Peering into Turla’s second stage backdoor. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
  47. GovCERT. (2016, May 23). Technical Report about the Espionage Case at RUAG. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
  48. Balanza, M. (2018, April 02). Infostealer.Catchamas. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  49. ClearSky Cyber Security. (2021, January). “Lebanese Cedar” APT Global Lebanese Espionage Campaign Leveraging Web Servers. Retrieved February 10, 2021.
  50. Check Point. (2022, January 11). APT35 exploits Log4j vulnerability to distribute new modular PowerShell toolkit. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  51. Jansen, W . (2021, January 12). Abusing cloud services to fly under the radar. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  52. Dupuy, T. and Faou, M. (2021, June). Gelsemium. Retrieved November 30, 2021.
  53. Lunghi, D. et al. (2020, February). Uncovering DRBControl. Retrieved November 12, 2021.
  54. Chen, T. and Chen, Z. (2020, February 17). CLAMBLING - A New Backdoor Base On Dropbox. Retrieved November 12, 2021.
  55. Dahan, A. et al. (2019, December 11). DROPPING ANCHOR: FROM A TRICKBOT INFECTION TO THE DISCOVERY OF THE ANCHOR MALWARE. Retrieved September 10, 2020.
  56. Strategic Cyber LLC. (2020, November 5). Cobalt Strike: Advanced Threat Tactics for Penetration Testers. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  57. Grunzweig, J. (2018, January 31). Comnie Continues to Target Organizations in East Asia. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
  58. Baskin, B. (2020, July 8). TAU Threat Discovery: Conti Ransomware. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
  59. byt3bl33d3r. (2018, September 8). SMB: Command Reference. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  60. Microsoft. (2022, June 2). Exposing POLONIUM activity and infrastructure targeting Israeli organizations. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  61. Huss, D. (2016, March 1). Operation Transparent Tribe. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  62. Dedola, G. (2020, August 20). Transparent Tribe: Evolution analysis, part 1. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
  63. Roccio, T., et al. (2021, April). Technical Analysis of Cuba Ransomware. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  64. NCSC. (2022, February 23). Cyclops Blink Malware Analysis Report. Retrieved March 3, 2022.
  65. Haquebord, F. et al. (2022, March 17). Cyclops Blink Sets Sights on Asus Routers. Retrieved March 17, 2022.
  66. Kaspersky Lab's Global Research & Analysis Team. (2015, August 10). Darkhotel's attacks in 2015. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
  67. Microsoft. (2016, July 14). Reverse engineering DUBNIUM – Stage 2 payload analysis . Retrieved March 31, 2021.
  68. Neeamni, D., Rubinfeld, A.. (2021, July 1). Diavol - A New Ransomware Used By Wizard Spider?. Retrieved November 12, 2021.
  69. US-CERT. (2018, March 16). Alert (TA18-074A): Russian Government Cyber Activity Targeting Energy and Other Critical Infrastructure Sectors. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  70. Konstantin Zykov. (2019, September 23). Hello! My name is Dtrack. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  71. Hod Gavriel. (2019, November 21). Dtrack: In-depth analysis of APT on a nuclear power plant. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  72. Symantec Security Response. (2011, November). W32.Duqu: The precursor to the next Stuxnet. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  73. hasherezade. (2015, November 4). A Technical Look At Dyreza. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  74. Chen, J., et al. (2022). Delving Deep: An Analysis of Earth Lusca’s Operations. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  75. Singleton, C. and Kiefer, C. (2020, September 28). Ransomware 2020: Attack Trends Affecting Organizations Worldwide. Retrieved September 20, 2021.
  76. Falcone, R., et al.. (2015, June 16). Operation Lotus Blossom. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
  77. Accenture Security. (2018, January 27). DRAGONFISH DELIVERS NEW FORM OF ELISE MALWARE TARGETING ASEAN DEFENCE MINISTERS’ MEETING AND ASSOCIATES. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
  78. Falcone, R. and Miller-Osborn, J. (2016, February 3). Emissary Trojan Changelog: Did Operation Lotus Blossom Cause It to Evolve?. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
  79. Schroeder, W., Warner, J., Nelson, M. (n.d.). Github PowerShellEmpire. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
  80. Adamitis, D. et al. (2019, June 4). It's alive: Threat actors cobble together open-source pieces into monstrous Frankenstein campaign. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
  81. Kaspersky Lab's Global Research and Analysis Team. (2014, August 7). The Epic Turla Operation: Solving some of the mysteries of Snake/Uroburos. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
  82. Threat Intelligence and Research. (2015, March 30). VOLATILE CEDAR. Retrieved February 8, 2021.
  83. US-CERT. (2017, November 22). Alert (TA17-318A): HIDDEN COBRA – North Korean Remote Administration Tool: FALLCHILL. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  84. Faou, M., Tartare, M., Dupuy, T. (2019, October). OPERATION GHOST. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  85. Somerville, L. and Toro, A. (2017, March 30). Playing Cat & Mouse: Introducing the Felismus Malware. Retrieved November 16, 2017.
  86. Cherepanov, A. (2018, October). GREYENERGY A successor to BlackEnergy. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  87. Hada, H. (2021, December 28). Flagpro The new malware used by BlackTech. Retrieved March 25, 2022.
  88. Vrabie, V. (2020, November). Dissecting a Chinese APT Targeting South Eastern Asian Government Institutions. Retrieved September 19, 2022.
  89. Cybereason Nocturnus. (2019, June 25). Operation Soft Cell: A Worldwide Campaign Against Telecommunications Providers. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
  90. F-Secure Labs. (2015, September 17). The Dukes: 7 years of Russian cyberespionage. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  91. Nafisi, R., Lelli, A. (2021, March 4). GoldMax, GoldFinder, and Sibot: Analyzing NOBELIUM’s layered persistence. Retrieved March 8, 2021.
  92. ESET. (2020, April 28). Grandoreiro: How engorged can an EXE get?. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  93. Mercer, W., Rascagneres, P. (2018, April 26). GravityRAT - The Two-Year Evolution Of An APT Targeting India. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
  94. Sandvik, Runa. (2021, October 1). Made In America: Green Lambert for OS X. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  95. Sandvik, Runa. (2021, October 18). Green Lambert and ATT&CK. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  96. Priego, A. (2021, July). THE BROTHERS GRIM: THE REVERSING TALE OF GRIMAGENT MALWARE USED BY RYUK. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  97. Kayal, A. et al. (2021, October). LYCEUM REBORN: COUNTERINTELLIGENCE IN THE MIDDLE EAST. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  98. Malwarebytes Threat Intelligence Team. (2020, June 4). New LNK attack tied to Higaisa APT discovered. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
  99. Singh, S. Singh, A. (2020, June 11). The Return on the Higaisa APT. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
  100. US-CERT. (2020, February 20). MAR-10271944-1.v1 – North Korean Trojan: HOTCROISSANT. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
  101. Symantec Security Response. (2010, January 18). The Trojan.Hydraq Incident. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  102. Lelli, A. (2010, January 11). Trojan.Hydraq. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  103. CrowdStrike. (2022, May). ICEAPPLE: A NOVEL INTERNET INFORMATION SERVICES (IIS) POST-EXPLOITATION FRAMEWORK. Retrieved June 27, 2022.
  104. Patrick Wardle. (n.d.). Mac Malware of 2017. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  105. Anton Cherepanov. (2017, June 12). Win32/Industroyer: A new threat for industrial controls systems. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  106. Hromcová, Z. (2018, June 07). InvisiMole: Surprisingly equipped spyware, undercover since 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  107. Hromcova, Z. and Cherpanov, A. (2020, June). INVISIMOLE: THE HIDDEN PART OF THE STORY. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  108. Sancho, D., et al. (2012, May 22). IXESHE An APT Campaign. Retrieved June 7, 2019.
  109. Unit 42. (2017, December 15). Unit 42 Playbook Viewer. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
  110. Windows Defender Advanced Threat Hunting Team. (2016, April 29). PLATINUM: Targeted attacks in South and Southeast Asia. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  111. Kamluk, V. & Gostev, A. (2016, February). Adwind - A Cross-Platform RAT. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  112. Levene, B, et al. (2017, May 03). Kazuar: Multiplatform Espionage Backdoor with API Access. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  113. Villeneuve, N., Bennett, J. T., Moran, N., Haq, T., Scott, M., & Geers, K. (2014). OPERATION “KE3CHANG”: Targeted Attacks Against Ministries of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
  114. Smallridge, R. (2018, March 10). APT15 is alive and strong: An analysis of RoyalCli and RoyalDNS. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
  115. MSTIC. (2021, December 6). NICKEL targeting government organizations across Latin America and Europe. Retrieved March 18, 2022.
  116. Parys, B. (2017, February 11). The KeyBoys are back in town. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  117. US-CERT. (2018, August 09). MAR-10135536-17 – North Korean Trojan: KEYMARBLE. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  118. An, J and Malhotra, A. (2021, November 10). North Korean attackers use malicious blogs to deliver malware to high-profile South Korean targets. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
  119. Magius, J., et al. (2017, July 19). Koadic. Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  120. Jazi, H. (2021, February). LazyScripter: From Empire to double RAT. Retrieved November 24, 2021.
  121. M.Leveille, M., Sanmillan, I. (2021, January). A WILD KOBALOS APPEARS Tricksy Linux malware goes after HPCs. Retrieved August 24, 2021.
  122. Rascagneres, P. (2017, May 03). KONNI: A Malware Under The Radar For Years. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  123. Symantec Security Response Attack Investigation Team. (2018, April 23). New Orangeworm attack group targets the healthcare sector in the U.S., Europe, and Asia. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
  124. Novetta Threat Research Group. (2016, February 24). Operation Blockbuster: Unraveling the Long Thread of the Sony Attack. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  125. Novetta Threat Research Group. (2016, February 24). Operation Blockbuster: Loaders, Installers and Uninstallers Report. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
  1. Faou, M. (2019, May). Turla LightNeuron: One email away from remote code execution. Retrieved June 24, 2019.
  2. BI.ZONE Cyber Threats Research Team. (2021, May 13). From pentest to APT attack: cybercriminal group FIN7 disguises its malware as an ethical hacker’s toolkit. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
  3. Kazem, M. (2019, November 25). Trojan:W32/Lokibot. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  4. Malik, M. (2019, June 20). LoudMiner: Cross-platform mining in cracked VST software. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  5. Hsu, K. et al. (2020, June 24). Lucifer: New Cryptojacking and DDoS Hybrid Malware Exploiting High and Critical Vulnerabilities to Infect Windows Devices. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  6. ESET. (2019, July). MACHETE JUST GOT SHARPER Venezuelan government institutions under attack. Retrieved September 13, 2019.
  7. kate. (2020, September 25). APT-C-43 steals Venezuelan military secrets to provide intelligence support for the reactionaries — HpReact campaign. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
  8. M.Léveillé, M., Cherepanov, A.. (2022, January 25). Watering hole deploys new macOS malware, DazzleSpy, in Asia. Retrieved May 6, 2022.
  9. Lee, B. and Falcone, R. (2017, February 15). Magic Hound Campaign Attacks Saudi Targets. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
  10. DFIR Report. (2022, March 21). APT35 Automates Initial Access Using ProxyShell. Retrieved May 25, 2022.
  11. PwC and BAE Systems. (2017, April). Operation Cloud Hopper: Technical Annex. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
  12. ClearSky Cyber Security . (2021, August). New Iranian Espionage Campaign By “Siamesekitten” - Lyceum. Retrieved June 6, 2022.
  13. Gross, J. (2016, February 23). Operation Dust Storm. Retrieved December 22, 2021.
  14. Miller-Osborn, J. and Grunzweig, J.. (2017, March 30). Trochilus and New MoonWind RATs Used In Attack Against Thai Organizations. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
  15. Svajcer, V. (2018, July 31). Multiple Cobalt Personality Disorder. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  16. Checkpoint Research. (2021, November 15). Uncovering MosesStaff techniques: Ideology over Money. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  17. ESET, et al. (2018, January). Diplomats in Eastern Europe bitten by a Turla mosquito. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
  18. Kaspersky Lab's Global Research & Analysis Team. (2018, October 10). MuddyWater expands operations. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
  19. Hamzeloofard, S. (2020, January 31). New wave of PlugX targets Hong Kong | Avira Blog. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  20. Neville, A. (2012, June 15). Trojan.Naid. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  21. Baumgartner, K., Golovkin, M.. (2015, May). The MsnMM Campaigns: The Earliest Naikon APT Campaigns. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  22. Axel F, Pierre T. (2017, October 16). Leviathan: Espionage actor spearphishes maritime and defense targets. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  23. The DigiTrust Group. (2017, January 01). NanoCore Is Not Your Average RAT. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  24. Bezroutchko, A. (2019, November 19). NBTscan man page. Retrieved March 17, 2021.
  25. SecTools. (2003, June 11). NBTscan. Retrieved March 17, 2021.
  26. Lambert, T. (2020, January 29). Intro to Netwire. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  27. Proofpoint. (2020, December 2). Geofenced NetWire Campaigns. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  28. ss64. (n.d.). NLTEST.exe - Network Location Test. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
  29. Grunzweig, J., Lee, B. (2018, September 27). New KONNI Malware attacking Eurasia and Southeast Asia. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  30. Sherstobitoff, R., Malhotra, A. (2018, October 18). ‘Operation Oceansalt’ Attacks South Korea, U.S., and Canada With Source Code From Chinese Hacker Group. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
  31. Kaspersky Lab's Global Research & Analysis Team. (2018, October 15). Octopus-infested seas of Central Asia. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
  32. Falcone, R. and Lee, B.. (2016, May 26). The OilRig Campaign: Attacks on Saudi Arabian Organizations Deliver Helminth Backdoor. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  33. Grunzweig, J. and Falcone, R.. (2016, October 4). OilRig Malware Campaign Updates Toolset and Expands Targets. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  34. Hromcova, Z. (2019, July). OKRUM AND KETRICAN: AN OVERVIEW OF RECENT KE3CHANG GROUP ACTIVITY. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  35. Mercer, W. and Rascagneres, P. (2018, February 12). Olympic Destroyer Takes Aim At Winter Olympics. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  36. Cybereason Nocturnus. (2022, May 4). Operation CuckooBees: Deep-Dive into Stealthy Winnti Techniques. Retrieved September 22, 2022.
  37. Dantzig, M. v., Schamper, E. (2019, December 19). Operation Wocao: Shining a light on one of China’s hidden hacking groups. Retrieved October 8, 2020.
  38. Horejsi, J. (2018, April 04). New MacOS Backdoor Linked to OceanLotus Found. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  39. Magisa, L. (2020, November 27). New MacOS Backdoor Connected to OceanLotus Surfaces. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
  40. Check Point. (2020, November 6). Ransomware Alert: Pay2Key. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  41. Leonardo. (2020, May 29). MALWARE TECHNICAL INSIGHT TURLA “Penquin_x64”. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  42. Unit 42. (2022, June 13). GALLIUM Expands Targeting Across Telecommunications, Government and Finance Sectors With New PingPull Tool. Retrieved August 7, 2022.
  43. Tartare, M. et al. (2020, May 21). No “Game over” for the Winnti Group. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  44. Grunzweig, J., et al. (2016, May 24). New Wekby Attacks Use DNS Requests As Command and Control Mechanism. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
  45. Ash, B., et al. (2018, June 26). RANCOR: Targeted Attacks in South East Asia Using PLAINTEE and DDKONG Malware Families. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
  46. Nettitude. (2018, July 23). Python Server for PoshC2. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  47. Adair, S.. (2016, November 9). PowerDuke: Widespread Post-Election Spear Phishing Campaigns Targeting Think Tanks and NGOs. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
  48. GReAT. (2019, August 12). Recent Cloud Atlas activity. Retrieved May 8, 2020.
  49. Singh, S. et al.. (2018, March 13). Iranian Threat Group Updates Tactics, Techniques and Procedures in Spear Phishing Campaign. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  50. Lunghi, D. and Horejsi, J.. (2019, June 10). MuddyWater Resurfaces, Uses Multi-Stage Backdoor POWERSTATS V3 and New Post-Exploitation Tools. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
  51. Sardiwal, M, et al. (2017, December 7). New Targeted Attack in the Middle East by APT34, a Suspected Iranian Threat Group, Using CVE-2017-11882 Exploit. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
  52. Cherepanov, A.. (2016, May 17). Operation Groundbait: Analysis of a surveillance toolkit. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
  53. Sherstobitoff, R., Malhotra, A. (2018, April 24). Analyzing Operation GhostSecret: Attack Seeks to Steal Data Worldwide. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
  54. Nicolas Verdier. (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  55. CERT-FR. (2020, April 1). ATTACKS INVOLVING THE MESPINOZA/PYSA RANSOMWARE. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
  56. CS. (2020, October 7). Duck Hunting with Falcon Complete: A Fowl Banking Trojan Evolves, Part 2. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  57. Kuzmenko, A. et al. (2021, September 2). QakBot technical analysis. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  58. Group IB. (2020, September). LOCK LIKE A PRO. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  59. Lee, B., Falcone, R. (2018, July 25). OilRig Targets Technology Service Provider and Government Agency with QUADAGENT. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
  60. CISA. (2018, December 18). Analysis Report (AR18-352A) Quasar Open-Source Remote Administration Tool. Retrieved August 1, 2022.
  61. Antiy CERT. (2020, April 20). Analysis of Ramsay components of Darkhotel's infiltration and isolation network. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
  62. Lei, C., et al. (2018, January 24). Lazarus Campaign Targeting Cryptocurrencies Reveals Remote Controller Tool, an Evolved RATANKBA, and More. Retrieved May 22, 2018.
  63. Trend Micro. (2017, February 27). RATANKBA: Delving into Large-scale Watering Holes against Enterprises. Retrieved May 22, 2018.
  64. Grunzweig, J. and Miller-Osborn, J. (2017, November 10). New Malware with Ties to SunOrcal Discovered. Retrieved November 16, 2017.
  65. Kaspersky Lab's Global Research & Analysis Team. (2016, August 9). The ProjectSauron APT. Technical Analysis. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
  66. Livelli, K, et al. (2018, November 12). Operation Shaheen. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  67. Knight, S.. (2020, April 16). VMware Carbon Black TAU Threat Analysis: The Evolution of Lazarus. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
  68. Sherstobitoff, R., Malhotra, A., et. al.. (2018, December 18). Operation Sharpshooter Campaign Targets Global Defense, Critical Infrastructure. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
  69. Falcone, R., et al. (2018, July 27). New Threat Actor Group DarkHydrus Targets Middle East Government. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
  70. Hanel, A. (2019, January 10). Big Game Hunting with Ryuk: Another Lucrative Targeted Ransomware. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
  71. Abrams, L. (2021, January 14). Ryuk Ransomware Uses Wake-on-Lan To Encrypt Offline Devices. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  72. Hasherezade. (2021, April 6). A deep dive into Saint Bot, a new downloader. Retrieved June 9, 2022.
  73. Joe Slowik. (2018, October 12). Anatomy of an Attack: Detecting and Defeating CRASHOVERRIDE. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  74. Schwarz, D. et al. (2019, October 16). TA505 Distributes New SDBbot Remote Access Trojan with Get2 Downloader. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  75. Kaspersky Lab. (2017, August). ShadowPad: popular server management software hit in supply chain attack. Retrieved March 22, 2021.
  76. Falcone, R.. (2016, November 30). Shamoon 2: Return of the Disttrack Wiper. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
  77. Mundo, A., Roccia, T., Saavedra-Morales, J., Beek, C.. (2018, December 14). Shamoon Returns to Wipe Systems in Middle East, Europe . Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  78. Yonathan Klijnsma. (2016, May 17). Mofang: A politically motivated information stealing adversary. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
  79. Check Point. (2021, April 8). Iran’s APT34 Returns with an Updated Arsenal. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  80. Hegel, T. (2021, January 13). A Global Perspective of the SideWinder APT. Retrieved January 27, 2021.
  81. BishopFox. (n.d.). Sliver Ifconfig. Retrieved September 16, 2021.
  82. NCSC GCHQ. (2022, January 27). Small Sieve Malware Analysis Report. Retrieved August 22, 2022.
  83. CISA. (2020, July 16). MAR-10296782-1.v1 – SOREFANG. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  84. Check Point Research. (2019, February 4). SpeakUp: A New Undetected Backdoor Linux Trojan. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  85. CTU. (2018, September 27). Cybercriminals Increasingly Trying to Ensnare the Big Financial Fish. Retrieved September 20, 2021.
  86. Kumar, A., Stone-Gross, Brett. (2021, September 28). Squirrelwaffle: New Loader Delivering Cobalt Strike. Retrieved August 9, 2022.
  87. FBI, CISA, CNMF, NCSC-UK. (2022, February 24). Iranian Government-Sponsored Actors Conduct Cyber Operations Against Global Government and Commercial Networks. Retrieved September 27, 2022.
  88. Marczak, B. and Scott-Railton, J.. (2016, May 29). Keep Calm and (Don’t) Enable Macros: A New Threat Actor Targets UAE Dissidents. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  89. Mercer, W. et al. (2020, June 29). PROMETHIUM extends global reach with StrongPity3 APT. Retrieved July 20, 2020.
  90. Nicolas Falliere, Liam O. Murchu, Eric Chien. (2011, February). W32.Stuxnet Dossier. Retrieved December 7, 2020.
  91. FireEye. (2020, December 13). Highly Evasive Attacker Leverages SolarWinds Supply Chain to Compromise Multiple Global Victims With SUNBURST Backdoor. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  92. Blasco, J. (2011, December 12). Another Sykipot sample likely targeting US federal agencies. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
  93. Grunzweig, J. and Miller-Osborn, J.. (2016, February 4). T9000: Advanced Modular Backdoor Uses Complex Anti-Analysis Techniques. Retrieved April 15, 2016.
  94. Trend Micro. (2012). The Taidoor Campaign. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
  95. CISA, FBI, DOD. (2021, August). MAR-10292089-1.v2 – Chinese Remote Access Trojan: TAIDOOR. Retrieved August 24, 2021.
  96. GReAT. (2019, April 10). Project TajMahal – a sophisticated new APT framework. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
  97. Fiser, D. Oliveira, A. (n.d.). Tracking the Activities of TeamTNT A Closer Look at a Cloud-Focused Malicious Actor Group. Retrieved September 22, 2021.
  98. Dell SecureWorks Counter Threat Unit Threat Intelligence. (2015, August 5). Threat Group-3390 Targets Organizations for Cyberespionage. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  99. Beek, C. (2020, November 5). Operation North Star: Behind The Scenes. Retrieved December 20, 2021.
  100. Salinas, M., Holguin, J. (2017, June). Evolution of Trickbot. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
  101. Anthony, N., Pascual, C.. (2018, November 1). Trickbot Shows Off New Trick: Password Grabber Module. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  102. Secureworks. (2019, July 24). Updated Karagany Malware Targets Energy Sector. Retrieved August 12, 2020.
  103. Chen, J.. (2020, May 12). Tropic Trooper’s Back: USBferry Attack Targets Air gapped Environments. Retrieved May 20, 2020.
  104. Tomonaga, S. (2018, March 6). Malware “TSCookie”. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  105. Adam Burgher. (2021, June 10). BackdoorDiplomacy: Upgrading from Quarian to Turian. Retrieved September 1, 2021
  106. Symantec DeepSight Adversary Intelligence Team. (2019, June 20). Waterbug: Espionage Group Rolls Out Brand-New Toolset in Attacks Against Governments. Retrieved July 8, 2019.
  107. Faou, M. (2020, May). From Agent.btz to ComRAT v4: A ten-year journey. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  108. Faou, M. and Dumont R.. (2019, May 29). A dive into Turla PowerShell usage. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
  109. Settle, A., et al. (2016, August 8). MONSOON - Analysis Of An APT Campaign. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
  110. Matsuda, A., Muhammad I. (2018, September 13). APT10 Targeting Japanese Corporations Using Updated TTPs. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  111. Salem, E. et al. (2020, May 28). VALAK: MORE THAN MEETS THE EYE . Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  112. Lancaster, T., Cortes, J. (2018, January 29). VERMIN: Quasar RAT and Custom Malware Used In Ukraine. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
  113. Yagi, J. (2014, August 24). Trojan.Volgmer. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
  114. Counter Threat Unit Research Team. (2017, May 18). WCry Ransomware Analysis. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
  115. CISA. (2020, July 16). MAR-10296782-3.v1 – WELLMAIL. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  116. PWC. (2020, July 16). How WellMess malware has been used to target COVID-19 vaccines. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
  117. CISA. (2020, July 16). MAR-10296782-2.v1 – WELLMESS. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
  118. Sean Gallagher, Peter Mackenzie, Elida Leite, Syed Shahram, Bill Kearney, Anand Aijan, Sivagnanam Gn, Suraj Mundalik. (2020, October 14). They’re back: inside a new Ryuk ransomware attack. Retrieved October 14, 2020.
  119. Xiao, C. (2018, September 17). Xbash Combines Botnet, Ransomware, Coinmining in Worm that Targets Linux and Windows. Retrieved November 14, 2018.
  120. Schwarz, D., Sopko J. (2018, March 08). Donot Team Leverages New Modular Malware Framework in South Asia. Retrieved June 11, 2018.
  121. ESET Research. (2019, May 22). A journey to Zebrocy land. Retrieved June 20, 2019.
  122. Huss, D., et al. (2017, February 2). Oops, they did it again: APT Targets Russia and Belarus with ZeroT and PlugX. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
  123. Singh, S. and Antil, S. (2020, October 27). APT-31 Leverages COVID-19 Vaccine Theme and Abuses Legitimate Online Services. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
  124. McAfee® Foundstone® Professional Services and McAfee Labs™. (2011, February 10). Global Energy Cyberattacks: “Night Dragon”. Retrieved February 19, 2018.