Data Encrypted for Impact

Adversaries may encrypt data on target systems or on large numbers of systems in a network to interrupt availability to system and network resources. They can attempt to render stored data inaccessible by encrypting files or data on local and remote drives and withholding access to a decryption key. This may be done in order to extract monetary compensation from a victim in exchange for decryption or a decryption key (ransomware) or to render data permanently inaccessible in cases where the key is not saved or transmitted.[1][2][3][4]

In the case of ransomware, it is typical that common user files like Office documents, PDFs, images, videos, audio, text, and source code files will be encrypted (and often renamed and/or tagged with specific file markers). Adversaries may need to first employ other behaviors, such as File and Directory Permissions Modification or System Shutdown/Reboot, in order to unlock and/or gain access to manipulate these files.[5] In some cases, adversaries may encrypt critical system files, disk partitions, and the MBR.[3]

To maximize impact on the target organization, malware designed for encrypting data may have worm-like features to propagate across a network by leveraging other attack techniques like Valid Accounts, OS Credential Dumping, and SMB/Windows Admin Shares.[2][3] Encryption malware may also leverage Internal Defacement, such as changing victim wallpapers, or otherwise intimidate victims by sending ransom notes or other messages to connected printers (known as "print bombing").[6]

In cloud environments, storage objects within compromised accounts may also be encrypted.[7]

ID: T1486
Sub-techniques:  No sub-techniques
Tactic: Impact
Platforms: IaaS, Linux, Windows, macOS
Impact Type: Availability
Contributors: ExtraHop; Harshal Tupsamudre, Qualys; Mayuresh Dani, Qualys; Oleg Kolesnikov, Securonix; Travis Smith, Qualys
Version: 1.4
Created: 15 March 2019
Last Modified: 16 June 2022

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
G0082 APT38

APT38 has used Hermes ransomware to encrypt files with AES256.[8]

G0096 APT41

APT41 used a ransomware called Encryptor RaaS to encrypt files on the targeted systems and provide a ransom note to the user.[9]

S0640 Avaddon

Avaddon encrypts the victim system using a combination of AES256 and RSA encryption schemes.[10]

S1053 AvosLocker

AvosLocker has encrypted files and network resources using AES-256 and added an .avos, .avos2, or .AvosLinux extension to filenames.[11][12][13][14]

S0638 Babuk

Babuk can use ChaCha8 and ECDH to encrypt data.[15][16][17][18]

S0606 Bad Rabbit

Bad Rabbit has encrypted files and disks using AES-128-CBC and RSA-2048.[19]

S0570 BitPaymer

BitPaymer can import a hard-coded RSA 1024-bit public key, generate a 128-bit RC4 key for each file, and encrypt the file in place, appending .locked to the filename.[20]

S1070 Black Basta

Black Basta can encrypt files with the ChaCha20 cypher and using a multithreaded process to increase speed.[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]

S1068 BlackCat

BlackCat has the ability to encrypt Windows devices, Linux devices, and VMWare instances.[30]

C0015 C0015

During C0015, the threat actors used Conti ransomware to encrypt a compromised network.[31]

C0018 C0018

During C0018, the threat actors used AvosLocker ransomware to encrypt files on the compromised network.[13][32]

S0611 Clop

Clop can encrypt files using AES, RSA, and RC4 and will add the ".clop" extension to encrypted files.[33][34][35]

S0575 Conti

Conti can use CreateIoCompletionPort(), PostQueuedCompletionStatus(), and GetQueuedCompletionPort() to rapidly encrypt files, excluding those with the extensions of .exe, .dll, and .lnk. It has used a different AES-256 encryption key per file with a bundled RAS-4096 public encryption key that is unique for each victim. Conti can use "Windows Restart Manager" to ensure files are unlocked and open for encryption.[36][5][37][38][31]

S0625 Cuba

Cuba has the ability to encrypt system data and add the ".cuba" extension to encrypted files.[39]

S1033 DCSrv

DCSrv has encrypted drives using the core encryption mechanism from DiskCryptor.[40]


DEATHRANSOM can use public and private key pair encryption to encrypt files for ransom payment.[41]

S0659 Diavol

Diavol has encrypted files using an RSA key though the CryptEncrypt API and has appended filenames with ".lock64". [42]

S0554 Egregor

Egregor can encrypt all non-system files using a hybrid AES-RSA algorithm prior to displaying a ransom note.[6][43]


EKANS uses standard encryption library functions to encrypt files.[44][45]

G0046 FIN7

FIN7 has encrypted virtual disk volumes on ESXi servers using a version of Darkside ransomware.[46][47]

G0061 FIN8

FIN8 has deployed ransomware such as Ragnar Locker, White Rabbit, and attempted to execute Noberus on compromised networks.[48]


FIVEHANDS can use an embedded NTRU public key to encrypt data for ransom.[41][49][50]


HELLOKITTY can use an embedded RSA-2048 public key to encrypt victim data for ransom.[41]

G0119 Indrik Spider

Indrik Spider has encrypted domain-controlled systems using BitPaymer.[20]

S0389 JCry

JCry has encrypted files and demanded Bitcoin to decrypt those files. [51]

S0607 KillDisk

KillDisk has a ransomware component that encrypts files with an AES key that is also RSA-1028 encrypted.[52]

S0372 LockerGoga

LockerGoga has encrypted files, including core Windows OS files, using RSA-OAEP MGF1 and then demanded Bitcoin be paid for the decryption key.[53][54][55]

G0059 Magic Hound

Magic Hound has used BitLocker and DiskCryptor to encrypt targeted workstations. [56][57]

S0449 Maze

Maze has disrupted systems by encrypting files on targeted machines, claiming to decrypt files if a ransom payment is made. Maze has used the ChaCha algorithm, based on Salsa20, and an RSA algorithm to encrypt files.[58]

S0576 MegaCortex

MegaCortex has used the open-source library, Mbed Crypto, and generated AES keys to carry out the file encryption process.[59][60]

S0457 Netwalker

Netwalker can encrypt files on infected machines to extort victims.[61]

S0368 NotPetya

NotPetya encrypts user files and disk structures like the MBR with 2048-bit RSA.[62][3][63]

S0556 Pay2Key

Pay2Key can encrypt data on victim's machines using RSA and AES algorithms in order to extort a ransom payment for decryption.[64][65]

S1058 Prestige

Prestige has leveraged the CryptoPP C++ library to encrypt files on target systems using AES and appended filenames with .enc.[66]

S0654 ProLock

ProLock can encrypt files on a compromised host with RC6, and encrypts the key with RSA-1024.[67]

S0583 Pysa

Pysa has used RSA and AES-CBC encryption algorithm to encrypt a list of targeted file extensions.[68]

S0481 Ragnar Locker

Ragnar Locker encrypts files on the local machine and mapped drives prior to displaying a note demanding a ransom.[69][70]

S0496 REvil

REvil can encrypt files on victim systems and demands a ransom to decrypt the files.[71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78]

S0400 RobbinHood

RobbinHood will search for an RSA encryption key and then perform its encryption process on the system files.[79]

S1073 Royal

Royal uses a multi-threaded encryption process that can partially encrypt targeted files with the OpenSSL library and the AES256 algorithm.[80][81][82]

S0446 Ryuk

Ryuk has used a combination of symmetric (AES) and asymmetric (RSA) encryption to encrypt files. Files have been encrypted with their own AES key and given a file extension of .RYK. Encrypted directories have had a ransom note of RyukReadMe.txt written to the directory.[83][38]

S0370 SamSam

SamSam encrypts victim files using RSA-2048 encryption and demands a ransom be paid in Bitcoin to decrypt those files.[84]

G0034 Sandworm Team

Sandworm Team has used Prestige ransomware to encrypt data at targeted organizations in transportation and related logistics industries in Ukraine and Poland.[66]

S0639 Seth-Locker

Seth-Locker can encrypt files on a targeted system, appending them with the suffix .seth.[18]

S0140 Shamoon

Shamoon has an operational mode for encrypting data instead of overwriting it.[85][86]

S0242 SynAck

SynAck encrypts the victims machine followed by asking the victim to pay a ransom. [87]

G0092 TA505

TA505 has used a wide variety of ransomware, such as Clop, Locky, Jaff, Bart, Philadelphia, and GlobeImposter, to encrypt victim files and demand a ransom payment.[88]

S0595 ThiefQuest

ThiefQuest encrypts a set of file extensions on a host, deletes the original files, and provides a ransom note with no contact information.[89]

S0366 WannaCry

WannaCry encrypts user files and demands that a ransom be paid in Bitcoin to decrypt those files.[90][2][91]

S0612 WastedLocker

WastedLocker can encrypt data and leave a ransom note.[92][93][94]

S0341 Xbash

Xbash has maliciously encrypted victim's database systems and demanded a cryptocurrency ransom be paid.[95]


XCSSET performs AES-CBC encryption on files under ~/Documents, ~/Downloads, and~/Desktop with a fixed key and renames files to give them a .enc extension. Only files with sizes less than 500MB are encrypted.[96]


ID Mitigation Description
M1040 Behavior Prevention on Endpoint

On Windows 10, enable cloud-delivered protection and Attack Surface Reduction (ASR) rules to block the execution of files that resemble ransomware. [97]

M1053 Data Backup

Consider implementing IT disaster recovery plans that contain procedures for regularly taking and testing data backups that can be used to restore organizational data.[98] Ensure backups are stored off system and is protected from common methods adversaries may use to gain access and destroy the backups to prevent recovery. Consider enabling versioning in cloud environments to maintain backup copies of storage objects.[99]


ID Data Source Data Component Detects
DS0010 Cloud Storage Cloud Storage Modification

Monitor for changes made in cloud environments for events that indicate storage objects have been anomalously modified.

DS0017 Command Command Execution

Monitor executed commands and arguments for actions involved in data destruction activity, such as vssadmin, wbadmin, and bcdedit

DS0022 File File Creation

Monitor for newly constructed files in user directories.

File Modification

Monitor for changes made to files in user directories.

DS0033 Network Share Network Share Access

Monitor for unexpected network shares being accessed on target systems or on large numbers of systems.

DS0009 Process Process Creation

Monitor for newly constructed processes and/or command-lines involved in data destruction activity, such as vssadmin, wbadmin, and bcdedit.


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