Adversaries may leverage external-facing remote services to initially access and/or persist within a network. Remote services such as VPNs, Citrix, and other access mechanisms allow users to connect to internal enterprise network resources from external locations. There are often remote service gateways that manage connections and credential authentication for these services. Services such as Windows Remote Management and VNC can also be used externally.
Access to Valid Accounts to use the service is often a requirement, which could be obtained through credential pharming or by obtaining the credentials from users after compromising the enterprise network. Access to remote services may be used as a redundant or persistent access mechanism during an operation.
Access may also be gained through an exposed service that doesn’t require authentication. In containerized environments, this may include an exposed Docker API, Kubernetes API server, kubelet, or web application such as the Kubernetes dashboard.
Sandworm Team has used Dropbear SSH with a hardcoded backdoor password to maintain persistence within the target network. Sandworm Team has also used VPN tunnels established in legitimate software company infrastructure to gain access to internal networks of that software company's users.
TeamTNT has used open-source tools such as Weave Scope to target exposed Docker API ports and gain initial access to victim environments. TeamTNT has also targeted exposed kubelets for Kubernetes environments.
Threat Group-3390 actors look for and use VPN profiles during an operation to access the network using external VPN services. Threat Group-3390 has also obtained OWA account credentials during intrusions that it subsequently used to attempt to regain access when evicted from a victim network.
|M1042||Disable or Remove Feature or Program||
Disable or block remotely available services that may be unnecessary.
|M1035||Limit Access to Resource Over Network||
Limit access to remote services through centrally managed concentrators such as VPNs and other managed remote access systems.
Use strong two-factor or multi-factor authentication for remote service accounts to mitigate an adversary's ability to leverage stolen credentials, but be aware of Multi-Factor Authentication Interception techniques for some two-factor authentication implementations.
Deny direct remote access to internal systems through the use of network proxies, gateways, and firewalls.
|ID||Data Source||Data Component||Detects|
|DS0015||Application Log||Application Log Content||
When authentication is not required to access an exposed remote service, monitor for follow-on activities such as anomalous external use of the exposed API or application.
|DS0028||Logon Session||Logon Session Metadata||
Follow best practices for detecting adversary use of Valid Accounts for authenticating to remote services. Collect authentication logs and analyze for unusual access patterns, windows of activity, and access outside of normal business hours.
|DS0029||Network Traffic||Network Traffic Flow||
Monitor for network traffic originating from unknown/unexpected hardware devices. Local network traffic metadata (such as source MAC addressing) as well as usage of network management protocols such as DHCP may be helpful in identifying hardware.