Indicator Removal on Host: Timestomp

Adversaries may modify file time attributes to hide new or changes to existing files. Timestomping is a technique that modifies the timestamps of a file (the modify, access, create, and change times), often to mimic files that are in the same folder. This is done, for example, on files that have been modified or created by the adversary so that they do not appear conspicuous to forensic investigators or file analysis tools.

Timestomping may be used along with file name Masquerading to hide malware and tools.[1]

ID: T1070.006
Sub-technique of:  T1070
Tactic: Defense Evasion
Platforms: Linux, Windows, macOS
Permissions Required: SYSTEM, User, root
Defense Bypassed: Host forensic analysis
Contributors: Romain Dumont, ESET
Version: 1.0
Created: 31 January 2020
Last Modified: 29 March 2020

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
S0066 3PARA RAT

3PARA RAT has a command to set certain attributes such as creation/modification timestamps on files.[2]

G0007 APT28

APT28 has performed timestomping on victim files.[3]

G0016 APT29

APT29 modified timestamps of backdoors to match legitimate Windows files.[4]

G0050 APT32

APT32 has used scheduled task raw XML with a backdated timestamp of June 2, 2016. The group has also set the creation time of the files dropped by the second stage of the exploit to match the creation time of kernel32.dll. Additionally, APT32 has used a random value to modify the timestamp of the file storing the clientID.[5][6][7]

G0082 APT38

APT38 has modified data timestamps to mimic files that are in the same folder on a compromised host.[8]

S0438 Attor

Attor has manipulated the time of last access to files and registry keys after they have been created or modified.[9]

S0239 Bankshot

Bankshot modifies the time of a file as specified by the control server.[10]

S0570 BitPaymer

BitPaymer can modify the timestamp of an executable so that it can be identified and restored by the decryption tool.[11]

S0520 BLINDINGCAN

BLINDINGCAN has modified file and directory timestamps.[12][13]

G0114 Chimera

Chimera has used a Windows version of the Linux touch command to modify the date and time stamp on DLLs.[14]

S0020 China Chopper

China Chopper's server component can change the timestamp of files.[15][16][17]

S0154 Cobalt Strike

Cobalt Strike can timestomp any files or payloads placed on a target machine to help them blend in.[18][19]

S0021 Derusbi

The Derusbi malware supports timestomping.[20][21]

S0081 Elise

Elise performs timestomping of a CAB file it creates.[22]

S0363 Empire

Empire can timestomp any files or payloads placed on a target machine to help them blend in.[23]

S0568 EVILNUM

EVILNUM has changed the creation date of files.[24]

S0181 FALLCHILL

FALLCHILL can modify file or directory timestamps.[25]

S0168 Gazer

For early Gazer versions, the compilation timestamp was faked.[26]

S0260 InvisiMole

InvisiMole samples were timestomped by the authors by setting the PE timestamps to all zero values. InvisiMole also has a built-in command to modify file times.[27]

S0387 KeyBoy

KeyBoy time-stomped its DLL in order to evade detection.[28]

G0094 Kimsuky

Kimsuky has manipulated timestamps for creation or compilation dates to defeat anti-forensics.[29]

S0641 Kobalos

Kobalos can modify timestamps of replaced files, such as ssh with the added credential stealer or sshd used to deploy Kobalos.[30]

G0032 Lazarus Group

Several Lazarus Group malware families use timestomping, including modifying the last write timestamp of a specified Registry key to a random date, as well as copying the timestamp for legitimate .exe files (such as calc.exe or mspaint.exe) to its dropped files.[31][32][33][34]

S0083 Misdat

Many Misdat samples were programmed using Borland Delphi, which will mangle the default PE compile timestamp of a file.[35]

S0352 OSX_OCEANLOTUS.D

OSX_OCEANLOTUS.D can use the touch -t command to change timestamps.[36][37]

S0072 OwaAuth

OwaAuth has a command to timestop a file or directory.[38]

S0150 POSHSPY

POSHSPY modifies timestamps of all downloaded executables to match a randomly selected file created prior to 2013.[39]

S0393 PowerStallion

PowerStallion modifies the MAC times of its local log files to match that of the victim's desktop.ini file.[40]

S0078 Psylo

Psylo has a command to conduct timestomping by setting a specified file’s timestamps to match those of a system file in the System32 directory.[41]

G0106 Rocke

Rocke has changed the time stamp of certain files.[42]

S0185 SEASHARPEE

SEASHARPEE can timestomp files on victims using a Web shell.[43]

S0140 Shamoon

Shamoon can change the modified time for files to evade forensic detection.[44]

S0603 Stuxnet

Stuxnet extracts and writes driver files that match the times of other legitimate files.[45]

S0586 TAINTEDSCRIBE

TAINTEDSCRIBE can change the timestamp of specified filenames.[46]

S0164 TDTESS

After creating a new service for persistence, TDTESS sets the file creation time for the service to the creation time of the victim's legitimate svchost.exe file.[47]

G0088 TEMP.Veles

TEMP.Veles used timestomping to modify the $STANDARD_INFORMATION attribute on tools.[48]

S0136 USBStealer

USBStealer sets the timestamps of its dropper files to the last-access and last-write timestamps of a standard Windows library chosen on the system.[49]

Mitigations

This type of attack technique cannot be easily mitigated with preventive controls since it is based on the abuse of system features.

Detection

ID Data Source Data Component
DS0022 File File Metadata
File Modification

Forensic techniques exist to detect aspects of files that have had their timestamps modified. [1] It may be possible to detect timestomping using file modification monitoring that collects information on file handle opens and can compare timestamp values.

References

  1. Carvey, H. (2013, July 23). HowTo: Determine/Detect the use of Anti-Forensics Techniques. Retrieved June 3, 2016.
  2. Crowdstrike Global Intelligence Team. (2014, June 9). CrowdStrike Intelligence Report: Putter Panda. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
  3. Alperovitch, D.. (2016, June 15). Bears in the Midst: Intrusion into the Democratic National Committee. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
  4. MSTIC, CDOC, 365 Defender Research Team. (2021, January 20). Deep dive into the Solorigate second-stage activation: From SUNBURST to TEARDROP and Raindrop . Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  5. Carr, N.. (2017, May 14). Cyber Espionage is Alive and Well: APT32 and the Threat to Global Corporations. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
  6. Dumont, R. (2019, March 20). Fake or Fake: Keeping up with OceanLotus decoys. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
  7. Dumont, R.. (2019, April 9). OceanLotus: macOS malware update. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  8. DHS/CISA. (2020, August 26). FASTCash 2.0: North Korea's BeagleBoyz Robbing Banks. Retrieved September 29, 2021.
  9. Hromcova, Z. (2019, October). AT COMMANDS, TOR-BASED COMMUNICATIONS: MEET ATTOR, A FANTASY CREATURE AND ALSO A SPY PLATFORM. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  10. Sherstobitoff, R. (2018, March 08). Hidden Cobra Targets Turkish Financial Sector With New Bankshot Implant. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
  11. Frankoff, S., Hartley, B. (2018, November 14). Big Game Hunting: The Evolution of INDRIK SPIDER From Dridex Wire Fraud to BitPaymer Targeted Ransomware. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
  12. US-CERT. (2020, August 19). MAR-10295134-1.v1 – North Korean Remote Access Trojan: BLINDINGCAN. Retrieved August 19, 2020.
  13. NHS Digital . (2020, August 20). BLINDINGCAN Remote Access Trojan. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
  14. Jansen, W . (2021, January 12). Abusing cloud services to fly under the radar. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  15. FireEye. (2018, March 16). Suspected Chinese Cyber Espionage Group (TEMP.Periscope) Targeting U.S. Engineering and Maritime Industries. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  16. Lee, T., Hanzlik, D., Ahl, I. (2013, August 7). Breaking Down the China Chopper Web Shell - Part I. Retrieved March 27, 2015.
  17. The Australian Cyber Security Centre (ACSC), the Canadian Centre for Cyber Security (CCCS), the New Zealand National Cyber Security Centre (NZ NCSC), CERT New Zealand, the UK National Cyber Security Centre (UK NCSC) and the US National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC). (2018, October 11). Joint report on publicly available hacking tools. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  18. Strategic Cyber LLC. (2017, March 14). Cobalt Strike Manual. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  19. Strategic Cyber LLC. (2020, November 5). Cobalt Strike: Advanced Threat Tactics for Penetration Testers. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  20. Novetta. (n.d.). Operation SMN: Axiom Threat Actor Group Report. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
  21. Fidelis Cybersecurity. (2016, February 29). The Turbo Campaign, Featuring Derusbi for 64-bit Linux. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
  22. Falcone, R., et al.. (2015, June 16). Operation Lotus Blossom. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
  23. Schroeder, W., Warner, J., Nelson, M. (n.d.). Github PowerShellEmpire. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
  24. Adamitis, D. (2020, May 6). Phantom in the Command Shell. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
  25. US-CERT. (2017, November 22). Alert (TA17-318A): HIDDEN COBRA – North Korean Remote Administration Tool: FALLCHILL. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  1. ESET. (2017, August). Gazing at Gazer: Turla’s new second stage backdoor. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  2. Hromcová, Z. (2018, June 07). InvisiMole: Surprisingly equipped spyware, undercover since 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  3. Parys, B. (2017, February 11). The KeyBoys are back in town. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  4. Dahan, A. et al. (2020, November 2). Back to the Future: Inside the Kimsuky KGH Spyware Suite. Retrieved November 6, 2020.
  5. M.Leveille, M., Sanmillan, I. (2021, January). A WILD KOBALOS APPEARS Tricksy Linux malware goes after HPCs. Retrieved August 24, 2021.
  6. Novetta Threat Research Group. (2016, February 24). Operation Blockbuster: Unraveling the Long Thread of the Sony Attack. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  7. Novetta Threat Research Group. (2016, February 24). Operation Blockbuster: Destructive Malware Report. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
  8. Novetta Threat Research Group. (2016, February 24). Operation Blockbuster: Loaders, Installers and Uninstallers Report. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
  9. Sherstobitoff, R., Malhotra, A. (2018, April 24). Analyzing Operation GhostSecret: Attack Seeks to Steal Data Worldwide. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
  10. Gross, J. (2016, February 23). Operation Dust Storm. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
  11. Magisa, L. (2020, November 27). New MacOS Backdoor Connected to OceanLotus Surfaces. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
  12. Phil Stokes. (2021, February 16). 20 Common Tools & Techniques Used by macOS Threat Actors & Malware. Retrieved August 23, 2021.
  13. Dell SecureWorks Counter Threat Unit Threat Intelligence. (2015, August 5). Threat Group-3390 Targets Organizations for Cyberespionage. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  14. Dunwoody, M.. (2017, April 3). Dissecting One of APT29’s Fileless WMI and PowerShell Backdoors (POSHSPY). Retrieved April 5, 2017.
  15. Faou, M. and Dumont R.. (2019, May 29). A dive into Turla PowerShell usage. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
  16. Falcone, R. and Miller-Osborn, J.. (2016, January 24). Scarlet Mimic: Years-Long Espionage Campaign Targets Minority Activists. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
  17. Anomali Labs. (2019, March 15). Rocke Evolves Its Arsenal With a New Malware Family Written in Golang. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
  18. Davis, S. and Caban, D. (2017, December 19). APT34 - New Targeted Attack in the Middle East. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
  19. Mundo, A., Roccia, T., Saavedra-Morales, J., Beek, C.. (2018, December 14). Shamoon Returns to Wipe Systems in Middle East, Europe . Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  20. Nicolas Falliere, Liam O. Murchu, Eric Chien. (2011, February). W32.Stuxnet Dossier. Retrieved December 7, 2020.
  21. USG. (2020, May 12). MAR-10288834-2.v1 – North Korean Trojan: TAINTEDSCRIBE. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  22. ClearSky Cyber Security and Trend Micro. (2017, July). Operation Wilted Tulip: Exposing a cyber espionage apparatus. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  23. Miller, S, et al. (2019, April 10). TRITON Actor TTP Profile, Custom Attack Tools, Detections, and ATT&CK Mapping. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  24. Calvet, J. (2014, November 11). Sednit Espionage Group Attacking Air-Gapped Networks. Retrieved January 4, 2017.