Indicator Removal on Host: Clear Command History

In addition to clearing system logs, an adversary may clear the command history of a compromised account to conceal the actions undertaken during an intrusion. macOS and Linux both keep track of the commands users type in their terminal so that users can retrace what they've done.

These logs can be accessed in a few different ways. While logged in, this command history is tracked in a file pointed to by the environment variable HISTFILE. When a user logs off a system, this information is flushed to a file in the user's home directory called ~/.bash_history. The benefit of this is that it allows users to go back to commands they've used before in different sessions.

Adversaries can use a variety of methods to prevent their own commands from appear in these logs, such as clearing the history environment variable (unset HISTFILE), setting the command history size to zero (export HISTFILESIZE=0), manually clearing the history (history -c), or deleting the bash history file rm ~/.bash_history.

ID: T1070.003
Sub-technique of:  T1070
Tactic: Defense Evasion
Platforms: Linux, macOS
Permissions Required: User
Data Sources: Authentication logs, File monitoring
Defense Bypassed: Host forensic analysis, Log analysis
Version: 1.0
Created: 31 January 2020
Last Modified: 29 March 2020

Procedure Examples

Name Description

APT41 attempted to remove evidence of some of its activity by deleting Bash histories.[2]


Mitigation Description
Environment Variable Permissions

Making the associated environment variables read only can make sure that the history is preserved.[1]

Restrict File and Directory Permissions

Preventing users from deleting or writing to certain files can stop adversaries from maliciously altering their ~/.bash_history files.


User authentication, especially via remote terminal services like SSH, without new entries in that user's ~/.bash_history is suspicious. Additionally, the modification of the HISTFILE and HISTFILESIZE environment variables or the removal/clearing of the ~/.bash_history file are indicators of suspicious activity.