Adversaries may abuse a container administration service to execute commands within a container. A container administration service such as the Docker daemon, the Kubernetes API server, or the kubelet may allow remote management of containers within an environment.
In Docker, adversaries may specify an entrypoint during container deployment that executes a script or command, or they may use a command such as
docker exec to execute a command within a running container. In Kubernetes, if an adversary has sufficient permissions, they may gain remote execution in a container in the cluster via interaction with the Kubernetes API server, the kubelet, or by running a command such as
Hildegard was executed through the kubelet API run command and by executing commands on running containers.
Kinsing was executed with an Ubuntu container entry point that runs shell scripts.
Peirates can use
Siloscape can send kubectl commands to victim clusters through an IRC channel and can run kubectl locally to spread once within a victim cluster.
TeamTNT executed Hildegard through the kubelet API run command and by executing commands on running containers.
|M1042||Disable or Remove Feature or Program||
Remove unnecessary tools and software from containers.
Use read-only containers, read-only file systems, and minimal images when possible to prevent the execution of commands. Where possible, also consider using application control and software restriction tools (such as those provided by SELinux) to restrict access to files, processes, and system calls in containers.
|M1035||Limit Access to Resource Over Network||
Limit communications with the container service to managed and secured channels, such as local Unix sockets or remote access via SSH. Require secure port access to communicate with the APIs over TLS by disabling unauthenticated access to the Docker API and Kubernetes API Server. In Kubernetes clusters deployed in cloud environments, use native cloud platform features to restrict the IP ranges that are permitted to access to API server. Where possible, consider enabling just-in-time (JIT) access to the Kubernetes API to place additional restrictions on access.
|M1026||Privileged Account Management||
Ensure containers are not running as root by default. In Kubernetes environments, consider defining Pod Security Standards that prevent pods from running privileged containers and using the
|M1018||User Account Management||
Enforce authentication and role-based access control on the container service to restrict users to the least privileges required. When using Kubernetes, avoid giving users wildcard permissions or adding users to the
|ID||Data Source||Data Component||Detects|
Monitor commands and arguments executed by container services. In Docker, the daemon log provides insight into events at the daemon and container service level. Kubernetes system component logs may also detect activities running in and out of containers in the cluster.
Container administration service activities and executed commands can be captured through logging of process execution with command-line arguments on the container as well as within the underlying host.