Adversaries may insert, delete, or manipulate data in order to influence external outcomes or hide activity, thus threatening the integrity of the data. By manipulating data, adversaries may attempt to affect a business process, organizational understanding, or decision making.
The type of modification and the impact it will have depends on the target application and process as well as the goals and objectives of the adversary. For complex systems, an adversary would likely need special expertise and possibly access to specialized software related to the system that would typically be gained through a prolonged information gathering campaign in order to have the desired impact.
|Encrypt Sensitive Information
Consider encrypting important information to reduce an adversary’s ability to perform tailored data modifications.
Identify critical business and system processes that may be targeted by adversaries and work to isolate and secure those systems against unauthorized access and tampering.
|Remote Data Storage
Consider implementing IT disaster recovery plans that contain procedures for taking regular data backups that can be used to restore organizational data. Ensure backups are stored off system and is protected from common methods adversaries may use to gain access and manipulate backups.
|Restrict File and Directory Permissions
Ensure least privilege principles are applied to important information resources to reduce exposure to data manipulation risk.
Monitor for newly constructed files in order to manipulate external outcomes or hide activity
Monitor for unexpected deletion of a file in order to manipulate external outcomes or hide activity
Monitor for contextual data about a file, which may include information such as name, the content (ex: signature, headers, or data/media), user/owner, permissions, etc that would aid in the manipulation of data to hide activity
Monitor for unexpected files with manipulated data in order to manipulate external outcomes or hide activity
|Network Traffic Content
Monitor for networks that solicits and obtains the configuration information of the queried device.
|Network Traffic Flow
Monitor for network traffic originating from unknown/unexpected hardware devices.
|OS API Execution
Monitor for API calls associated with altering data. Remote access tools with built-in features may interact directly with the Windows API to gather information.