Adversaries may utilize the camera to capture information about the user, their surroundings, or other physical identifiers. Adversaries may use the physical camera devices on a mobile device to capture images or video. By default, in Android and iOS, an application must request permission to access a camera device which is granted by the user through a request prompt. In Android, applications must hold the
android.permission.CAMERA permission to access the camera. In iOS, applications must include the
NSCameraUsageDescription key in the
Info.plist file, and must request access to the camera at runtime.
|Pegasus for Android|
During the vetting process applications using the android permission
|Use Recent OS Version||
Android 9 and above restricts access to mic, camera, and other sensors from background applications. 
On Android and iOS, the user can view which applications have permission to use the camera through the device settings screen, and the user can choose to revoke the permissions.
- Android Developers. (, January). Android 9+ Privacy Changes . Retrieved August 27, 2019.
- Actis B. (2017, April 22). FlexSpy Application Analysis. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
- Marc Rogers. (2014, March 6). Dendroid malware can take over your camera, record audio, and sneak into Google Play. Retrieved December 22, 2016.
- Mike Murray. (2017, April 3). Pegasus for Android: the other side of the story emerges. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- Veo Zhang. (2015, July 21). Hacking Team RCSAndroid Spying Tool Listens to Calls; Roots Devices to Get In. Retrieved December 22, 2016.
- Wenjun Hu, Cong Zheng and Zhi Xu. (2017, July 6). SpyDealer: Android Trojan Spying on More Than 40 Apps. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
- Lookout. (n.d.). Stealth Mango & Tangelo. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- Viral Gandhi. (2017, January 12). Super Mario Run Malware #2 – DroidJack RAT. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
- Blaich, A., et al. (2018, January 18). Dark Caracal: Cyber-espionage at a Global Scale. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
- Nikita Buchka and Alexey Firsh. (2018, January 16). Skygofree: Following in the footsteps of HackingTeam. Retrieved September 24, 2018.
- Security Without Borders. (2019, March 29). Exodus: New Android Spyware Made in Italy. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
- Bauer A., Kumar A., Hebeisen C., et al. (2019, July). Monokle: The Mobile Surveillance Tooling of the Special Technology Center. Retrieved September 4, 2019.