Adversaries may modify visual content available internally or externally to an enterprise network, thus affecting the integrity of the original content. Reasons for Defacement include delivering messaging, intimidation, or claiming (possibly false) credit for an intrusion. Disturbing or offensive images may be used as a part of Defacement in order to cause user discomfort, or to pressure compliance with accompanying messages.

ID: T1491
Sub-techniques:  T1491.001, T1491.002
Tactic: Impact
Platforms: IaaS, Linux, Windows, macOS
Impact Type: Integrity
Version: 1.3
Created: 08 April 2019
Last Modified: 25 March 2022


ID Mitigation Description
M1053 Data Backup

Consider implementing IT disaster recovery plans that contain procedures for taking regular data backups that can be used to restore organizational data.[1] Ensure backups are stored off system and is protected from common methods adversaries may use to gain access and destroy the backups to prevent recovery.


ID Data Source Data Component Detects
DS0015 Application Log Application Log Content

Monitor for third-party application logging, messaging, and/or other artifacts that may modify visual content available internally or externally to an enterprise network.

DS0022 File File Creation

Monitor for newly constructed visual content for internal or external enterprise networks.

File Modification

Monitor for changes made to files for unexpected modifications to internal and external websites for unplanned content changes.

DS0029 Network Traffic Network Traffic Content

Monitor and analyze traffic patterns and packet inspection associated to protocol(s) that do not follow the expected protocol standards and traffic flows (e.g. unauthorized, gratuitous, or anomalous traffic patterns attempting to access internal and external websites and services). Consider correlating with application monitoring for indication of unplanned service interruptions or unauthorized content changes.