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Video Capture

An adversary can leverage a computer's peripheral devices (e.g., integrated cameras or webcams) or applications (e.g., video call services) to capture video recordings for the purpose of gathering information. Images may also be captured from devices or applications, potentially in specified intervals, in lieu of video files.

Malware or scripts may be used to interact with the devices through an available API provided by the operating system or an application to capture video or images. Video or image files may be written to disk and exfiltrated later. This technique differs from Screen Capture due to use of specific devices or applications for video recording rather than capturing the victim's screen.

In macOS, there are a few different malware samples that record the user's webcam such as FruitFly and Proton. [1]

ID: T1125
Tactic: Collection
Platform: Windows, macOS
Permissions Required: User
Data Sources: Process monitoring, File monitoring, API monitoring
Contributors: Praetorian
Version: 1.0

Procedure Examples

Name Description
Agent Tesla Agent Tesla can access the victim’s webcam and record video. [20] [21]
Bandook Bandook has modules that are capable of capturing from a victim's webcam. [18]
Cobian RAT Cobian RAT has a feature to access the webcam on the victim’s machine. [19]
DarkComet DarkComet can access the victim’s webcam to take pictures. [14] [15]
Derusbi Derusbi is capable of capturing video. [7]
Empire Empire can capture webcam data on Windows and macOS systems. [6]
EvilGrab EvilGrab has the capability to capture video from a victim machine. [10]
FIN7 FIN7 created a custom video recording capability that could be used to monitor operations in the victim's environment. [26] [27]
InvisiMole InvisiMole can remotely activate the victim’s webcam to capture content. [11]
jRAT jRAT has the capability to capture video from a webcam. [8] [9]
Kazuar Kazuar captures images from the webcam. [12]
NanoCore NanoCore can access the victim's webcam and capture data. [16] [17]
njRAT njRAT can access the victim's webcam. [24] [25]
Pupy Pupy can access a connected webcam and capture pictures. [3]
QuasarRAT QuasarRAT can perform webcam viewing. [4] [5]
Remcos Remcos can access a system’s webcam and take pictures. [2]
Revenge RAT Revenge RAT has the ability to access the webcam. [22] [23]
Silence Silence has been observed making videos of victims to observe bank employees day to day activities. [28]
T9000 T9000 uses the Skype API to record audio and video calls. It writes encrypted data to %APPDATA%\Intel\Skype. [13]

Mitigations

This type of attack technique cannot be easily mitigated with preventive controls since it is based on the abuse of system features.

Detection

Detection of this technique may be difficult due to the various APIs that may be used. Telemetry data regarding API use may not be useful depending on how a system is normally used, but may provide context to other potentially malicious activity occurring on a system.

Behavior that could indicate technique use include an unknown or unusual process accessing APIs associated with devices or software that interact with the video camera, recording devices, or recording software, and a process periodically writing files to disk that contain video or camera image data.

References

  1. Kujawa, A. (2018, March 27). You dirty RAT! Part 1: DarkComet. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  2. The DigiTrust Group. (2017, January 01). NanoCore Is Not Your Average RAT. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  3. Kasza, A., Halfpop, T. (2016, February 09). NanoCoreRAT Behind an Increase in Tax-Themed Phishing E-mails. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  4. Galperin, E., Et al.. (2016, August). I Got a Letter From the Government the Other Day.... Retrieved April 25, 2018.
  5. Yadav, A., et al. (2017, August 31). Cobian RAT – A backdoored RAT. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  6. The DigiTrust Group. (2017, January 12). The Rise of Agent Tesla. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  7. Brumaghin, E., et al. (2018, October 15). Old dog, new tricks - Analysing new RTF-based campaign distributing Agent Tesla, Loki with PyREbox. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  8. Livelli, K, et al. (2018, November 12). Operation Shaheen. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  9. Gannon, M. (2019, February 11). With Upgrades in Delivery and Support Infrastructure, Revenge RAT Malware is a Bigger Threat. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  10. Fidelis Cybersecurity. (2013, June 28). Fidelis Threat Advisory #1009: "njRAT" Uncovered. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  11. Scott-Railton, J., et al. (2016, August 2). Group5: Syria and the Iranian Connection. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
  12. Carr, N., et al. (2018, August 01). On the Hunt for FIN7: Pursuing an Enigmatic and Evasive Global Criminal Operation. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
  13. Department of Justice. (2018, August 01). HOW FIN7 ATTACKED AND STOLE DATA. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
  14. GReAT. (2017, November 1). Silence – a new Trojan attacking financial organizations. Retrieved May 24, 2019.