Video Capture

An adversary can leverage a computer's peripheral devices (e.g., integrated cameras or webcams) or applications (e.g., video call services) to capture video recordings for the purpose of gathering information. Images may also be captured from devices or applications, potentially in specified intervals, in lieu of video files.

Malware or scripts may be used to interact with the devices through an available API provided by the operating system or an application to capture video or images. Video or image files may be written to disk and exfiltrated later. This technique differs from Screen Capture due to use of specific devices or applications for video recording rather than capturing the victim's screen.

In macOS, there are a few different malware samples that record the user's webcam such as FruitFly and Proton. [1]

ID: T1125

Tactic: Collection

Platform:  Windows, macOS

Permissions Required:  User

Data Sources:  Process monitoring, File monitoring, API monitoring

Contributors:  Praetorian
Version: 1.0

Mitigations

This type of attack technique cannot be easily mitigated with preventive controls since it is based on the abuse of system features.

Examples

Name Description
Agent Tesla

Agent Tesla can access the victim’s webcam and record video.[2][3]

Bandook

Bandook has modules that are capable of capturing from a victim's webcam.[4]

Cobian RAT

Cobian RAT has a feature to access the webcam on the victim’s machine.[5]

DarkComet

DarkComet can access the victim’s webcam to take pictures.[6][7]

Derusbi

Derusbi is capable of capturing video.[8]

Empire

Empire can capture webcam data on Windows and macOS systems.[9]

EvilGrab

EvilGrab has the capability to capture video from a victim machine.[10]

FIN7

FIN7 created a custom video recording capability that could be used to monitor operations in the victim's environment.[11][12]

InvisiMole

InvisiMole can remotely activate the victim’s webcam to capture content.[13]

jRAT

jRAT has the capability to capture video from a webcam.[14][15]

Kazuar

Kazuar captures images from the webcam.[16]

NanoCore

NanoCore can access the victim's webcam and capture data.[17][18]

njRAT

njRAT can access the victim's webcam.[19][20]

Pupy

Pupy can access a connected webcam and capture pictures.[21]

QuasarRAT

QuasarRAT can perform webcam viewing.[22][23]

Remcos

Remcos can access a system’s webcam and take pictures.[24]

Revenge RAT

Revenge RAT has the ability to access the webcam.[25][26]

Silence

Silence has been observed making videos of victims to observe bank employees day to day activities.[27]

T9000

T9000 uses the Skype API to record audio and video calls. It writes encrypted data to %APPDATA%\Intel\Skype.[28]

Detection

Detection of this technique may be difficult due to the various APIs that may be used. Telemetry data regarding API use may not be useful depending on how a system is normally used, but may provide context to other potentially malicious activity occurring on a system.

Behavior that could indicate technique use include an unknown or unusual process accessing APIs associated with devices or software that interact with the video camera, recording devices, or recording software, and a process periodically writing files to disk that contain video or camera image data.

References

  1. Patrick Wardle. (n.d.). Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  2. The DigiTrust Group. (2017, January 12). The Rise of Agent Tesla. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  3. Brumaghin, E., et al. (2018, October 15). Old dog, new tricks - Analysing new RTF-based campaign distributing Agent Tesla, Loki with PyREbox. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  4. Galperin, E., Et al.. (2016, August). I Got a Letter From the Government the Other Day.... Retrieved April 25, 2018.
  5. Yadav, A., et al. (2017, August 31). Cobian RAT – A backdoored RAT. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  6. TrendMicro. (2014, September 03). DARKCOMET. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  7. Kujawa, A. (2018, March 27). You dirty RAT! Part 1: DarkComet. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  8. FireEye. (2018, March 16). Suspected Chinese Cyber Espionage Group (TEMP.Periscope) Targeting U.S. Engineering and Maritime Industries. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  9. Schroeder, W., Warner, J., Nelson, M. (n.d.). Github PowerShellEmpire. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
  10. PwC and BAE Systems. (2017, April). Operation Cloud Hopper: Technical Annex. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
  11. Carr, N., et al. (2018, August 01). On the Hunt for FIN7: Pursuing an Enigmatic and Evasive Global Criminal Operation. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
  12. Department of Justice. (2018, August 01). HOW FIN7 ATTACKED AND STOLE DATA. Retrieved August 24, 2018.
  13. Hromcová, Z. (2018, June 07). InvisiMole: Surprisingly equipped spyware, undercover since 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  14. Sharma, R. (2018, August 15). Revamped jRAT Uses New Anti-Parsing Techniques. Retrieved September 21, 2018.