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Video Capture

An adversary can leverage a computer's peripheral devices (e.g., integrated cameras or webcams) or applications (e.g., video call services) to capture video recordings for the purpose of gathering information. Images may also be captured from devices or applications, potentially in specified intervals, in lieu of video files.

Malware or scripts may be used to interact with the devices through an available API provided by the operating system or an application to capture video or images. Video or image files may be written to disk and exfiltrated later. This technique differs from Screen Capture due to use of specific devices or applications for video recording rather than capturing the victim's screen.

In macOS, there are a few different malware samples that record the user's webcam such as FruitFly and Proton. [1]

ID: T1125

Tactic: Collection

Platform:  Windows, macOS

Permissions Required:  User

Data Sources:  Process monitoring, File monitoring, API monitoring

Contributors:  Praetorian

Version: 1.0

Examples

NameDescription
Bandook

Bandook has modules that are capable of capturing from a victim's webcam.[2]

Derusbi

Derusbi is capable of capturing video.[3]

EvilGrab

EvilGrab has the capability to capture video from a victim machine.[4]

FIN7

FIN7 created a custom video recording capability that could be used to monitor operations in the victim's environment.[5][6]

InvisiMole

InvisiMole can remotely activate the victim’s webcam to capture content.[7]

jRAT

jRAT has the capability to access the webcam on the victim’s machine.[8]

Kazuar

Kazuar captures images from the webcam.[9]

Pupy

Pupy can access a connected webcam and capture pictures.[10]

QuasarRAT

QuasarRAT can perform webcam viewing.[11][12]

T9000

T9000 uses the Skype API to record audio and video calls. It writes encrypted data to %APPDATA%\Intel\Skype.[13]

Mitigation

Mitigating this technique specifically may be difficult as it requires fine-grained API control. Efforts should be focused on preventing unwanted or unknown code from executing on a system.

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be used to capture video and images by using whitelisting [14] tools, like AppLocker, [15] [16] or Software Restriction Policies [17] where appropriate. [18]

Detection

Detection of this technique may be difficult due to the various APIs that may be used. Telemetry data regarding API use may not be useful depending on how a system is normally used, but may provide context to other potentially malicious activity occurring on a system.

Behavior that could indicate technique use include an unknown or unusual process accessing APIs associated with devices or software that interact with the video camera, recording devices, or recording software, and a process periodically writing files to disk that contain video or camera image data.

References