Process Injection: Dynamic-link Library Injection

Adversaries may inject dynamic-link libraries (DLLs) into processes in order to evade process-based defenses as well as possibly elevate privileges. DLL injection is a method of executing arbitrary code in the address space of a separate live process.

DLL injection is commonly performed by writing the path to a DLL in the virtual address space of the target process before loading the DLL by invoking a new thread. The write can be performed with native Windows API calls such as VirtualAllocEx and WriteProcessMemory, then invoked with CreateRemoteThread (which calls the LoadLibrary API responsible for loading the DLL). [1]

Variations of this method such as reflective DLL injection (writing a self-mapping DLL into a process) and memory module (map DLL when writing into process) overcome the address relocation issue as well as the additional APIs to invoke execution (since these methods load and execute the files in memory by manually preforming the function of LoadLibrary).[2][1]

Running code in the context of another process may allow access to the process's memory, system/network resources, and possibly elevated privileges. Execution via DLL injection may also evade detection from security products since the execution is masked under a legitimate process.

ID: T1055.001
Sub-technique of:  T1055
Tactics: Defense Evasion, Privilege Escalation
Platforms: Windows
Permissions Required: User
Data Sources: API monitoring, DLL monitoring, File monitoring, Process monitoring
Defense Bypassed: Anti-virus, Application control
Version: 1.0
Created: 14 January 2020
Last Modified: 20 June 2020

Procedure Examples

Name Description
Aria-body

Aria-body has the ability to inject itself into another process such as rundll32.exe and dllhost.exe.[3]

BlackEnergy

BlackEnergy injects its DLL component into svchost.exe.[4]

Carberp

Carberp's bootkit can inject a malicious DLL into the address space of running processes.[5]

Carbon

Carbon has a command to inject code into a process.[6]

ComRAT

ComRAT has injected its orchestrator DLL into explorer.exe. ComRAT has also injected its communications module into the victim's default browser to make C2 connections appear less suspicious as all network connections will be initiated by the browser process.[7]

Derusbi

Derusbi injects itself into the secure shell (SSH) process.[8]

Duqu

Duqu will inject itself into different processes to evade detection. The selection of the target process is influenced by the security software that is installed on the system (Duqu will inject into different processes depending on which security suite is installed on the infected host).[9]

Dyre

Dyre injects into other processes to load modules.[10]

Elise

Elise injects DLL files into iexplore.exe.[11][12]

Emissary

Emissary injects its DLL file into a newly spawned Internet Explorer process.[13]

Emotet

Emotet has been observed injecting in to Explorer.exe and other processes. [14][15][16]

FinFisher

FinFisher injects itself into various processes depending on whether it is low integrity or high integrity.[17][18]

Get2

Get2 has the ability to inject DLLs into processes.[19]

HIDEDRV

HIDEDRV injects a DLL for Downdelph into the explorer.exe process.[20]

Kazuar

If running in a Windows environment, Kazuar saves a DLL to disk that is injected into the explorer.exe process to execute the payload. Kazuar can also be configured to inject and execute within specific processes.[21]

Koadic

Koadic can perform process injection by using a reflective DLL.[22]

Lazarus Group

A Lazarus Group malware sample performs reflective DLL injection.[23]

Matroyshka

Matroyshka uses reflective DLL injection to inject the malicious library and execute the RAT.[24]

Maze

Maze has injected the malware DLL into a target process.[25][26]

Metamorfo

Metamorfo has injected a malicious DLL into the Windows Media Player process (wmplayer.exe).[27]

Netwalker

The Netwalker DLL has been injected reflectively into the memory of a legitimate running process.[28]

PipeMon

PipeMon can inject its modules into various processes using reflective DLL loading.[29]

PoisonIvy

PoisonIvy can inject a malicious DLL into a process.[30][31]

PowerSploit

PowerSploit contains a collection of CodeExecution modules that inject code (DLL, shellcode) into a process.[32][33]

Pupy

Pupy can migrate into another process using reflective DLL injection.[34]

Putter Panda

An executable dropped onto victims by Putter Panda aims to inject the specified DLL into a process that would normally be accessing the network, including Outlook Express (msinm.exe), Outlook (outlook.exe), Internet Explorer (iexplore.exe), and Firefox (firefox.exe).[35]

Ramsay

Ramsay can use ImprovedReflectiveDLLInjection to deploy components.[36]

RARSTONE

After decrypting itself in memory, RARSTONE downloads a DLL file from its C2 server and loads it in the memory space of a hidden Internet Explorer process. This "downloaded" file is actually not dropped onto the system.[37]

RATANKBA

RATANKBA performs a reflective DLL injection using a given pid.[38][39]

Remsec

Remsec can perform DLL injection.[40]

SDBot

SDBot has the ability to inject a downloaded DLL into a newly created rundll32.exe process.[19]

Socksbot

Socksbot creates a suspended svchost process and injects its DLL into it.[41]

Sykipot

Sykipot injects itself into running instances of outlook.exe, iexplore.exe, or firefox.exe.[42]

TA505

TA505 has been seen injecting a DLL into winword.exe.[43]

TajMahal

TajMahal has the ability to inject DLLs for malicious plugins into running processes.[44]

Tropic Trooper

Tropic Trooper has injected a DLL backdoor into dllhost.exe and svchost.exe.[45][46]

Turla

Turla has used Metasploit to perform reflective DLL injection in order to escalate privileges.[47][48]

ZxShell

ZxShell is injected into a shared SVCHOST process.[49]

Mitigations

Mitigation Description
Behavior Prevention on Endpoint

Some endpoint security solutions can be configured to block some types of process injection based on common sequences of behavior that occur during the injection process.

Detection

Monitoring Windows API calls indicative of the various types of code injection may generate a significant amount of data and may not be directly useful for defense unless collected under specific circumstances for known bad sequences of calls, since benign use of API functions may be common and difficult to distinguish from malicious behavior. Windows API calls such as CreateRemoteThread and those that can be used to modify memory within another process, such as VirtualAllocEx/WriteProcessMemory, may be used for this technique.[1]

Monitor DLL/PE file events, specifically creation of these binary files as well as the loading of DLLs into processes. Look for DLLs that are not recognized or not normally loaded into a process.

Analyze process behavior to determine if a process is performing actions it usually does not, such as opening network connections, reading files, or other suspicious actions that could relate to post-compromise behavior.

References

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  1. Brandt, A., Mackenzie, P.. (2020, September 17). Maze Attackers Adopt Ragnar Locker Virtual Machine Technique. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
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