Hildegard is malware that targets misconfigured kubelets for initial access and runs cryptocurrency miner operations. The malware was first observed in January 2021. The TeamTNT activity group is believed to be behind Hildegard. [1]

ID: S0601
Platforms: Linux, Containers, IaaS
Contributors: Center for Threat-Informed Defense (CTID)
Version: 1.2
Created: 07 April 2021
Last Modified: 11 April 2024

Techniques Used

Domain ID Name Use
Enterprise T1071 Application Layer Protocol

Hildegard has used an IRC channel for C2 communications.[1]

Enterprise T1059 .004 Command and Scripting Interpreter: Unix Shell

Hildegard has used shell scripts for execution.[1]

Enterprise T1609 Container Administration Command

Hildegard was executed through the kubelet API run command and by executing commands on running containers.[1]

Enterprise T1613 Container and Resource Discovery

Hildegard has used masscan to search for kubelets and the kubelet API for additional running containers.[1]

Enterprise T1136 .001 Create Account: Local Account

Hildegard has created a user named "monerodaemon".[1]

Enterprise T1543 .002 Create or Modify System Process: Systemd Service

Hildegard has started a monero service.[1]

Enterprise T1140 Deobfuscate/Decode Files or Information

Hildegard has decrypted ELF files with AES.[1]

Enterprise T1611 Escape to Host

Hildegard has used the BOtB tool that can break out of containers. [1]

Enterprise T1068 Exploitation for Privilege Escalation

Hildegard has used the BOtB tool which exploits CVE-2019-5736.[1]

Enterprise T1133 External Remote Services

Hildegard was executed through an unsecure kubelet that allowed anonymous access to the victim environment.[1]

Enterprise T1574 .006 Hijack Execution Flow: Dynamic Linker Hijacking

Hildegard has modified /etc/ld.so.preload to intercept shared library import functions.[1]

Enterprise T1562 .001 Impair Defenses: Disable or Modify Tools

Hildegard has modified DNS resolvers to evade DNS monitoring tools.[1]

Enterprise T1070 .003 Indicator Removal: Clear Command History

Hildegard has used history -c to clear script shell logs.[1]

.004 Indicator Removal: File Deletion

Hildegard has deleted scripts after execution.[1]

Enterprise T1105 Ingress Tool Transfer

Hildegard has downloaded additional scripts that build and run Monero cryptocurrency miners.[1]

Enterprise T1036 .004 Masquerading: Masquerade Task or Service

Hildegard has disguised itself as a known Linux process.[1]

Enterprise T1046 Network Service Discovery

Hildegard has used masscan to look for kubelets in the internal Kubernetes network.[1]

Enterprise T1027 .002 Obfuscated Files or Information: Software Packing

Hildegard has packed ELF files into other binaries.[1]

.013 Obfuscated Files or Information: Encrypted/Encoded File

Hildegard has encrypted an ELF file.[1]

Enterprise T1219 Remote Access Software

Hildegard has established tmate sessions for C2 communications.[1]

Enterprise T1496 Resource Hijacking

Hildegard has used xmrig to mine cryptocurrency.[1]

Enterprise T1014 Rootkit

Hildegard has modified /etc/ld.so.preload to overwrite readdir() and readdir64().[1]

Enterprise T1082 System Information Discovery

Hildegard has collected the host's OS, CPU, and memory information.[1]

Enterprise T1552 .001 Unsecured Credentials: Credentials In Files

Hildegard has searched for SSH keys, Docker credentials, and Kubernetes service tokens.[1]

.004 Unsecured Credentials: Private Keys

Hildegard has searched for private keys in .ssh.[1]

.005 Unsecured Credentials: Cloud Instance Metadata API

Hildegard has queried the Cloud Instance Metadata API for cloud credentials.[1]

Enterprise T1102 Web Service

Hildegard has downloaded scripts from GitHub.[1]

Groups That Use This Software

ID Name References
G0139 TeamTNT