Bread was a large-scale billing fraud malware family known for employing many different cloaking and obfuscation techniques in an attempt to continuously evade Google Play Store’s malware detection. 1,700 unique Bread apps were detected and removed from the Google Play Store before being downloaded by users.[1]

ID: S0432
Associated Software: Joker
Platforms: Android
Contributors: Sergey Persikov, Check Point; Jonathan Shimonovich, Check Point; Aviran Hazum, Check Point
Version: 1.1
Created: 04 May 2020
Last Modified: 14 October 2020

Associated Software Descriptions

Name Description


Techniques Used

Domain ID Name Use
Mobile T1517 Access Notifications

Bread can collect device notifications.[2]

Mobile T1412 Capture SMS Messages

Bread can access SMS messages in order to complete carrier billing fraud.[1]

Mobile T1448 Carrier Billing Fraud

Bread can perform SMS fraud on older versions of the malware, and toll fraud on newer versions.[1]

Mobile T1475 Deliver Malicious App via Authorized App Store

Bread has been distributed through the Play Store. Some versions started off as clean to build a userbase and developer reputation. These versions were then updated to introduce malicious code.[1]

Mobile T1476 Deliver Malicious App via Other Means

Bread can install additional applications.[2]

Mobile T1407 Download New Code at Runtime

Bread has utilized JavaScript within WebViews that loaded a URL hosted on a Bread-controlled server which provided functions to run. Bread downloads billing fraud execution steps at runtime.[1]

Mobile T1452 Manipulate App Store Rankings or Ratings

Bread had many fake reviews and ratings on the Play Store.[1]

Mobile T1575 Native Code

Bread has used native code in an attempt to disguise malicious functionality.[1]

Mobile T1406 Obfuscated Files or Information

Bread uses various tricks to obfuscate its strings including standard and custom encryption, programmatically building strings at runtime, and splitting unencrypted strings with repeated delimiters to break up keywords. Bread has also abused Java and JavaScript features to obfuscate code. Bread payloads have used several commercially available packers as well as hiding code in native libraries and encrypted JAR files in the data section of an ELF file. Bread has stored DEX payloads as base64-encoded strings in the Android manifest and internal Java classes.[2][1]

Mobile T1437 Standard Application Layer Protocol

Bread communicates with the C2 server using HTTP requests.[1]

Mobile T1422 System Network Configuration Discovery

Bread collects the device’s IMEI, carrier, mobile country code, and mobile network code.[1]