Bread was a large-scale billing fraud malware family known for employing many different cloaking and obfuscation techniques in an attempt to continuously evade Google Play Store’s malware detection. 1,700 unique Bread apps were detected and removed from the Google Play Store before being downloaded by users.[1]

ID: S0432
Associated Software: Joker
Platforms: Android
Contributors: Sergey Persikov, Check Point; Jonathan Shimonovich, Check Point; Aviran Hazum, Check Point
Version: 1.2
Created: 04 May 2020
Last Modified: 21 April 2023

Associated Software Descriptions

Name Description


Techniques Used

Domain ID Name Use
Mobile T1517 Access Notifications

Bread can collect device notifications.[2]

Mobile T1437 .001 Application Layer Protocol: Web Protocols

Bread communicates with the C2 server using HTTP requests.[1]

Mobile T1407 Download New Code at Runtime

Bread has utilized JavaScript within WebViews that loaded a URL hosted on a Bread-controlled server which provided functions to run. Bread downloads billing fraud execution steps at runtime.[1]

Mobile T1643 Generate Traffic from Victim

Bread can perform SMS fraud on older versions of the malware, and toll fraud on newer versions.[1]

Mobile T1575 Native API

Bread has used native code in an attempt to disguise malicious functionality.[1]

Mobile T1406 Obfuscated Files or Information

Bread uses various tricks to obfuscate its strings including standard and custom encryption, programmatically building strings at runtime, and splitting unencrypted strings with repeated delimiters to break up keywords. Bread has also abused Java and JavaScript features to obfuscate code. Bread payloads have hidden code in native libraries and encrypted JAR files in the data section of an ELF file. Bread has stored DEX payloads as base64-encoded strings in the Android manifest and internal Java classes.[2][1]

.002 Software Packing

Bread payloads have used several commercially available packers.[1]

Mobile T1636 .004 Protected User Data: SMS Messages

Bread can access SMS messages in order to complete carrier billing fraud.[1]

Mobile T1422 System Network Configuration Discovery

Bread collects the device’s IMEI, carrier, mobile country code, and mobile network code.[1]