Cloud Service Discovery

An adversary may attempt to enumerate the cloud services running on a system after gaining access. These methods can differ from platform-as-a-service (PaaS), to infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS), or software-as-a-service (SaaS). Many services exist throughout the various cloud providers and can include Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery (CI/CD), Lambda Functions, Azure AD, etc. They may also include security services, such as AWS GuardDuty and Microsoft Defender for Cloud, and logging services, such as AWS CloudTrail and Google Cloud Audit Logs.

Adversaries may attempt to discover information about the services enabled throughout the environment. Azure tools and APIs, such as the Azure AD Graph API and Azure Resource Manager API, can enumerate resources and services, including applications, management groups, resources and policy definitions, and their relationships that are accessible by an identity.[1][2]

For example, Stormspotter is an open source tool for enumerating and constructing a graph for Azure resources and services, and Pacu is an open source AWS exploitation framework that supports several methods for discovering cloud services.[3][4]

Adversaries may use the information gained to shape follow-on behaviors, such as targeting data or credentials from enumerated services or evading identified defenses through Disable or Modify Tools or Disable or Modify Cloud Logs.

ID: T1526
Sub-techniques:  No sub-techniques
Tactic: Discovery
Platforms: Azure AD, Google Workspace, IaaS, Office 365, SaaS
Contributors: Praetorian; Suzy Schapperle - Microsoft Azure Red Team; Thanabodi Phrakhun, I-SECURE
Version: 1.3
Created: 30 August 2019
Last Modified: 04 May 2023

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
S0677 AADInternals

AADInternals can enumerate information about a variety of cloud services, such as Office 365 and Sharepoint instances or OpenID Configurations.[5]

S1091 Pacu

Pacu can enumerate AWS services, such as CloudTrail and CloudWatch.[4]

S0684 ROADTools

ROADTools can enumerate Azure AD applications and service principals.[6]


This type of attack technique cannot be easily mitigated with preventive controls since it is based on the abuse of system features.


ID Data Source Data Component Detects
DS0025 Cloud Service Cloud Service Enumeration

Cloud service discovery techniques will likely occur throughout an operation where an adversary is targeting cloud-based systems and services. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities based on the information obtained.Normal, benign system and network events that look like cloud service discovery may be uncommon, depending on the environment and how they are used. Monitor cloud service usage for anomalous behavior that may indicate adversarial presence within the environment.