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Browser Bookmark Discovery

Adversaries may enumerate browser bookmarks to learn more about compromised hosts. Browser bookmarks may reveal personal information about users (ex: banking sites, interests, social media, etc.) as well as details about internal network resources such as servers, tools/dashboards, or other related infrastructure.

Browser bookmarks may also highlight additional targets after an adversary has access to valid credentials, especially Credentials in Files associated with logins cached by a browser.

Specific storage locations vary based on platform and/or application, but browser bookmarks are typically stored in local files/databases.

ID: T1217
Tactic: Discovery
Platform: Linux, Windows, macOS
Permissions Required: User
Data Sources: API monitoring, File monitoring, Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring
Contributors: Mike Kemmerer
Version: 1.0

Procedure Examples

Name Description
Calisto Calisto collects information on bookmarks from Google Chrome. [2]
Empire Empire has the ability to gather browser data such as bookmarks and visited sites. [1]
MobileOrder MobileOrder has a command to upload to its C2 server victim browser bookmarks. [3]

Mitigations

This type of attack technique cannot be easily mitigated with preventive controls since it is based on the abuse of system features.

Detection

Monitor processes and command-line arguments for actions that could be taken to gather browser bookmark information. Remote access tools with built-in features may interact directly using APIs to gather information. Information may also be acquired through system management tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

System and network discovery techniques normally occur throughout an operation as an adversary learns the environment. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as Collection and Exfiltration, based on the information obtained.

References