Audio Capture

An adversary can leverage a computer's peripheral devices (e.g., microphones and webcams) or applications (e.g., voice and video call services) to capture audio recordings for the purpose of listening into sensitive conversations to gather information.

Malware or scripts may be used to interact with the devices through an available API provided by the operating system or an application to capture audio. Audio files may be written to disk and exfiltrated later.

ID: T1123
Sub-techniques:  No sub-techniques
Tactic: Collection
Platforms: Linux, Windows, macOS
Permissions Required: User
Data Sources: API monitoring, File monitoring, Process monitoring
CAPEC ID: CAPEC-634
Version: 1.0
Created: 31 May 2017
Last Modified: 14 July 2020

Procedure Examples

Name Description
APT37

APT37 has used an audio capturing utility known as SOUNDWAVE that captures microphone input.[1]

Attor

Attor's has a plugin that is capable of recording audio using available input sound devices.[2]

Bandook

Bandook has modules that are capable of capturing audio.[3]

Cadelspy

Cadelspy has the ability to record audio from the compromised host.[4]

Cobian RAT

Cobian RAT has a feature to perform voice recording on the victim’s machine.[5]

DarkComet

DarkComet can listen in to victims' conversations through the system’s microphone.[6][7]

Derusbi

Derusbi is capable of performing audio captures.[8]

DOGCALL

DOGCALL can capture microphone data from the victim's machine.[9]

EvilGrab

EvilGrab has the capability to capture audio from a victim machine.[10]

Flame

Flame can record audio using any existing hardware recording devices.[11][12]

Imminent Monitor

Imminent Monitor has a remote microphone monitoring capability.[13][14]

InvisiMole

InvisiMole can record sound using input audio devices.[15][16]

Janicab

Janicab captured audio and sent it out to a C2 server.[17][18]

jRAT

jRAT can capture microphone recordings.[19]

Machete

Machete captures audio from the computer’s microphone.[20]

MacSpy

MacSpy can record the sounds from microphones on a computer.[21]

Micropsia

Micropsia can perform microphone recording.[22]

NanoCore

NanoCore can capture audio feeds from the system.[23][24]

PowerSploit

PowerSploit's Get-MicrophoneAudio Exfiltration module can record system microphone audio.[25][26]

Pupy

Pupy can record sound with the microphone.[27]

Remcos

Remcos can capture data from the system’s microphone.[28]

Revenge RAT

Revenge RAT has a plugin for microphone interception.[29][30]

ROKRAT

ROKRAT has a audio capture and eavesdropping module.[31]

T9000

T9000 uses the Skype API to record audio and video calls. It writes encrypted data to %APPDATA%\Intel\Skype.[32]

TajMahal

TajMahal has the ability to capture VoiceIP application audio on an infected host.[33]

VERMIN

VERMIN can perform audio capture.[34]

Mitigations

This type of attack technique cannot be easily mitigated with preventive controls since it is based on the abuse of system features.

Detection

Detection of this technique may be difficult due to the various APIs that may be used. Telemetry data regarding API use may not be useful depending on how a system is normally used, but may provide context to other potentially malicious activity occurring on a system.

Behavior that could indicate technique use include an unknown or unusual process accessing APIs associated with devices or software that interact with the microphone, recording devices, or recording software, and a process periodically writing files to disk that contain audio data.

References

  1. FireEye. (2018, February 20). APT37 (Reaper): The Overlooked North Korean Actor. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
  2. Hromcova, Z. (2019, October). AT COMMANDS, TOR-BASED COMMUNICATIONS: MEET ATTOR, A FANTASY CREATURE AND ALSO A SPY PLATFORM. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  3. Galperin, E., Et al.. (2016, August). I Got a Letter From the Government the Other Day.... Retrieved April 25, 2018.
  4. Symantec Security Response. (2015, December 7). Iran-based attackers use back door threats to spy on Middle Eastern targets. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  5. Yadav, A., et al. (2017, August 31). Cobian RAT – A backdoored RAT. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  6. TrendMicro. (2014, September 03). DARKCOMET. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  7. Kujawa, A. (2018, March 27). You dirty RAT! Part 1: DarkComet. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  8. FireEye. (2018, March 16). Suspected Chinese Cyber Espionage Group (TEMP.Periscope) Targeting U.S. Engineering and Maritime Industries. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  9. Grunzweig, J. (2018, October 01). NOKKI Almost Ties the Knot with DOGCALL: Reaper Group Uses New Malware to Deploy RAT. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  10. PwC and BAE Systems. (2017, April). Operation Cloud Hopper: Technical Annex. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
  11. Gostev, A. (2012, May 28). The Flame: Questions and Answers. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
  12. Gostev, A. (2012, May 30). Flame: Bunny, Frog, Munch and BeetleJuice…. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
  13. Unit 42. (2019, December 2). Imminent Monitor – a RAT Down Under. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
  14. QiAnXin Threat Intelligence Center. (2019, February 18). APT-C-36: Continuous Attacks Targeting Colombian Government Institutions and Corporations. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
  15. Hromcová, Z. (2018, June 07). InvisiMole: Surprisingly equipped spyware, undercover since 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  16. Hromcova, Z. and Cherpanov, A. (2020, June). INVISIMOLE: THE HIDDEN PART OF THE STORY. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  17. Brod. (2013, July 15). Signed Mac Malware Using Right-to-Left Override Trick. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  1. Thomas. (2013, July 15). New signed malware called Janicab. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  2. Kamluk, V. & Gostev, A. (2016, February). Adwind - A Cross-Platform RAT. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  3. Kaspersky Global Research and Analysis Team. (2014, August 20). El Machete. Retrieved September 13, 2019.
  4. Patrick Wardle. (n.d.). Mac Malware of 2017. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  5. Tsarfaty, Y. (2018, July 25). Micropsia Malware. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  6. The DigiTrust Group. (2017, January 01). NanoCore Is Not Your Average RAT. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  7. Kasza, A., Halfpop, T. (2016, February 09). NanoCoreRAT Behind an Increase in Tax-Themed Phishing E-mails. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  8. PowerShellMafia. (2012, May 26). PowerSploit - A PowerShell Post-Exploitation Framework. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  9. PowerSploit. (n.d.). PowerSploit. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  10. Nicolas Verdier. (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  11. Bacurio, F., Salvio, J. (2017, February 14). REMCOS: A New RAT In The Wild. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  12. Livelli, K, et al. (2018, November 12). Operation Shaheen. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  13. Gannon, M. (2019, February 11). With Upgrades in Delivery and Support Infrastructure, Revenge RAT Malware is a Bigger Threat. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  14. GReAT. (2019, May 13). ScarCruft continues to evolve, introduces Bluetooth harvester. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  15. Grunzweig, J. and Miller-Osborn, J.. (2016, February 4). T9000: Advanced Modular Backdoor Uses Complex Anti-Analysis Techniques. Retrieved April 15, 2016.
  16. GReAT. (2019, April 10). Project TajMahal – a sophisticated new APT framework. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
  17. Lancaster, T., Cortes, J. (2018, January 29). VERMIN: Quasar RAT and Custom Malware Used In Ukraine. Retrieved July 5, 2018.