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Exfiltration Over Physical Medium

In certain circumstances, such as an air-gapped network compromise, exfiltration could occur via a physical medium or device introduced by a user. Such media could be an external hard drive, USB drive, cellular phone, MP3 player, or other removable storage and processing device. The physical medium or device could be used as the final exfiltration point or to hop between otherwise disconnected systems.

ID: T1052
Tactic: Exfiltration
Platform: Linux, macOS, Windows
System Requirements: Presence of physical medium or device
Data Sources: Data loss prevention, File monitoring
Version: 1.0

Procedure Examples

Name Description
Agent.btz Agent.btz creates a file named thumb.dd on all USB flash drives connected to the victim. This file contains information about the infected system and activity logs. [6]
Remsec Remsec contains a module to move data from airgapped networks to Internet-connected systems by using a removable USB device. [4]
SPACESHIP SPACESHIP copies staged data to removable drives when they are inserted into the system. [3]
USBStealer USBStealer exfiltrates collected files via removable media from air-gapped victims. [5]


Mitigation Description
Disable or Remove Feature or Program Disable Autorun if it is unnecessary. Disallow or restrict removable media at an organizational policy level if they are not required for business operations. [1] [2]


Monitor file access on removable media. Detect processes that execute when removable media are mounted.