Application Window Discovery

Adversaries may attempt to get a listing of open application windows. Window listings could convey information about how the system is used or give context to information collected by a keylogger.

ID: T1010
Sub-techniques:  No sub-techniques
Tactic: Discovery
Platforms: Windows, macOS
Permissions Required: User
Data Sources: Command: Command Execution, Process: OS API Execution, Process: Process Creation
Version: 1.1
Created: 31 May 2017
Last Modified: 26 March 2020

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
S0456 Aria-body

Aria-body has the ability to identify the titles of running windows on a compromised host.[1]

S0438 Attor

Attor can obtain application window titles and then determines which windows to perform Screen Capture on.[2]

S0454 Cadelspy

Cadelspy has the ability to identify open windows on the compromised host.[3]

S0261 Catchamas

Catchamas obtains application windows titles and then determines which windows to perform Screen Capture on.[4]

S0038 Duqu

The discovery modules used with Duqu can collect information on open windows.[5]

S0531 Grandoreiro

Grandoreiro can identify installed security tools based on window names.[6]

S0431 HotCroissant

HotCroissant has the ability to list the names of all open windows on the infected host.[7]

S0260 InvisiMole

InvisiMole can enumerate windows and child windows on a compromised host.[8][9]

S0265 Kazuar

Kazuar gathers information about opened windows.[10]

G0032 Lazarus Group

Lazarus Group malware IndiaIndia obtains and sends to its C2 server the title of the window for each running process. The KilaAlfa keylogger also reports the title of the window in the foreground.[11][12][13]

S0409 Machete

Machete saves the window names.[14]

S0455 Metamorfo

Metamorfo can enumerate all windows on the victim’s machine.[15][16]

S0033 NetTraveler

NetTraveler reports window names along with keylogger information to provide application context.[17]

S0198 NETWIRE

NETWIRE can discover and close windows on controlled systems.[18]

S0385 njRAT

njRAT gathers information about opened windows during the initial infection.[19]

S0435 PLEAD

PLEAD has the ability to list open windows on the compromised host.[20]

S0012 PoisonIvy

PoisonIvy captures window titles.[21]

S0139 PowerDuke

PowerDuke has a command to get text of the current foreground window.[22]

S0375 Remexi

Remexi has a command to capture active windows on the machine and retrieve window titles.[23]

S0157 SOUNDBITE

SOUNDBITE is capable of enumerating application windows.[24]

S0094 Trojan.Karagany

Trojan.Karagany can monitor the titles of open windows to identify specific keywords.[25]

S0219 WINERACK

WINERACK can enumerate active windows.[26]

Mitigations

This type of attack technique cannot be easily mitigated with preventive controls since it is based on the abuse of system features.

Detection

System and network discovery techniques normally occur throughout an operation as an adversary learns the environment. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities based on the information obtained.

Monitor processes and command-line arguments for actions that could be taken to gather system and network information. Remote access tools with built-in features may interact directly with the Windows API to gather information. Information may also be acquired through Windows system management tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

References

  1. CheckPoint. (2020, May 7). Naikon APT: Cyber Espionage Reloaded. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  2. Hromcova, Z. (2019, October). AT COMMANDS, TOR-BASED COMMUNICATIONS: MEET ATTOR, A FANTASY CREATURE AND ALSO A SPY PLATFORM. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  3. Symantec Security Response. (2015, December 7). Iran-based attackers use back door threats to spy on Middle Eastern targets. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  4. Balanza, M. (2018, April 02). Infostealer.Catchamas. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  5. Symantec Security Response. (2011, November). W32.Duqu: The precursor to the next Stuxnet. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  6. ESET. (2020, April 28). Grandoreiro: How engorged can an EXE get?. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  7. Knight, S.. (2020, April 16). VMware Carbon Black TAU Threat Analysis: The Evolution of Lazarus. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
  8. Hromcová, Z. (2018, June 07). InvisiMole: Surprisingly equipped spyware, undercover since 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  9. Hromcova, Z. and Cherpanov, A. (2020, June). INVISIMOLE: THE HIDDEN PART OF THE STORY. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  10. Levene, B, et al. (2017, May 03). Kazuar: Multiplatform Espionage Backdoor with API Access. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  11. Novetta Threat Research Group. (2016, February 24). Operation Blockbuster: Unraveling the Long Thread of the Sony Attack. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  12. Novetta Threat Research Group. (2016, February 24). Operation Blockbuster: Loaders, Installers and Uninstallers Report. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
  13. Novetta Threat Research Group. (2016, February 24). Operation Blockbuster: Tools Report. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
  1. ESET. (2019, July). MACHETE JUST GOT SHARPER Venezuelan government institutions under attack. Retrieved September 13, 2019.
  2. Sierra, E., Iglesias, G.. (2018, April 24). Metamorfo Campaigns Targeting Brazilian Users. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  3. Zhang, X.. (2020, February 4). Another Metamorfo Variant Targeting Customers of Financial Institutions in More Countries. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  4. Kaspersky Lab's Global Research and Analysis Team. (n.d.). The NetTraveler (aka ‘Travnet’). Retrieved November 12, 2014.
  5. Lambert, T. (2020, January 29). Intro to Netwire. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  6. Fidelis Cybersecurity. (2013, June 28). Fidelis Threat Advisory #1009: "njRAT" Uncovered. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  7. Bermejo, L., et al. (2017, June 22). Following the Trail of BlackTech’s Cyber Espionage Campaigns. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
  8. Hayashi, K. (2005, August 18). Backdoor.Darkmoon. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
  9. Adair, S.. (2016, November 9). PowerDuke: Widespread Post-Election Spear Phishing Campaigns Targeting Think Tanks and NGOs. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
  10. Legezo, D. (2019, January 30). Chafer used Remexi malware to spy on Iran-based foreign diplomatic entities. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  11. Carr, N.. (2017, May 14). Cyber Espionage is Alive and Well: APT32 and the Threat to Global Corporations. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
  12. Secureworks. (2019, July 24). Updated Karagany Malware Targets Energy Sector. Retrieved August 12, 2020.
  13. FireEye. (2018, February 20). APT37 (Reaper): The Overlooked North Korean Actor. Retrieved March 1, 2018.