|Data Sources||Windows Registry, Packet capture, Netflow/Enclave netflow|
|Contributors||Matthew Demaske, Adaptforward|
Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR) and NetBIOS Name Service (NBT-NS) are Microsoft Windows components that serve as alternate methods of host identification. LLMNR is based upon the Domain Name System (DNS) format and allows hosts on the same local link to perform name resolution for other hosts. NBT-NS identifies systems on a local network by their NetBIOS name.12
Adversaries can spoof an authoritative source for name resolution on a victim network by responding to LLMNR (UDP 5355)/NBT-NS (UDP 137) traffic as if they know the identity of the requested host, effectively poisoning the service so that the victims will communicate with the adversary controlled system. If the requested host belongs to a resource that requires identification/authentication, the username and NTLMv2 hash will then be sent to the adversary controlled system. The adversary can then collect the hash information sent over the wire through tools that monitor the ports for traffic or through Network Sniffing and crack the hashes offline through Brute Force to obtain the plaintext passwords.
- Pupy can sniff plaintext network credentials and use NBNS Spoofing to poison name services.6
- Responder is used to poison name services to gather hashes and credentials from systems within a local network.5
Disable LLMNR and NetBIOS in local computer security settings or by group policy if they are not needed within an environment.7
Use host-based security software to block LLMNR/NetBIOS traffic.
HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows NT\DNSClient for changes to the "EnableMulticast" DWORD value. A value of “0” indicates LLMNR is disabled.8
Monitor for traffic on ports UDP 5355 and UDP 137 if LLMNR/NetBIOS is disabled by security policy.
Deploy an LLMNR/NBT-NS spoofing detection tool.9
- Wikipedia. (2016, July 7). Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
- Microsoft. (n.d.). NetBIOS Name Resolution. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
- Nomex. (2014, February 7). NBNSpoof. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
- Francois, R. (n.d.). LLMNR Spoofer. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
- Gaffie, L. (2016, August 25). Responder. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
- Nicolas Verdier. (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2018.
- Metcalf, S. (2016, October 21). Securing Windows Workstations: Developing a Secure Baseline. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
- Sternstein, J. (2013, November). Local Network Attacks: LLMNR and NBT-NS Poisoning. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
- Robertson, K. (2016, August 28). Conveigh. Retrieved November 17, 2017.