Dylib Hijacking

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Dylib Hijacking
Technique
ID T1157
Tactic Persistence, Privilege Escalation
Platform MacOS, OS X
Permissions Required User
Effective Permissions Administrator, root
Data Sources File monitoring

macOS and OS X use a common method to look for required dynamic libraries (dylib) to load into a program based on search paths. Adversaries can take advantage of ambiguous paths to plant dylibs to gain privilege escalation or persistence.

A common method is to see what dylibs an application uses, then plant a malicious version with the same name higher up in the search path. This typically results in the dylib being in the same folder as the application itself12. If the program is configured to run at a higher privilege level than the current user, then when the dylib is loaded into the application, the dylib will also run at that elevated level. This can be used by adversaries as a privilege escalation technique.

Mitigation

Prevent users from being able to write files to the search paths for applications - both in the folders where applications are run from and the standard dylib folders. If users can't write to these directories, then they can't intercept the search path.

Detection

Objective-See's Dylib Hijacking Scanner can be used to detect potential cases of dylib hijacking. Monitor file systems for moving, renaming, replacing, or modifying dylibs. Changes in the set of dylibs that are loaded by a process (compared to past behavior) that do not correlate with known software, patches, etc., are suspicious. Check the system for multiple dylibs with the same name and monitor which versions have historically been loaded into a process.