Obfuscated Files or Information
|Obfuscated Files or Information|
|Platform||Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1, Windows 10|
|Data Sources||Network protocol analysis, Process use of network, Binary file metadata, File monitoring, Malware reverse engineering|
|Defense Bypassed||Host forensic analysis, Signature-based detection, Host intrusion prevention systems|
Adversaries may attempt to make an executable or file difficult to discover or analyze by encrypting, encoding, or otherwise obfuscating its contents on the system.
- APT28 encrypted a .dll payload using RTL and a custom encryption algorithm.1
- APT32 has used Daniel Bohannon’s Invoke-Obfuscation framework to obfuscate their PowerShell.23
- Dust Storm has encoded payloads with a single-byte XOR, both skipping the key itself and zeroing in an attempt to avoid exposing the key.4
- Group5 disguised its malicious binaries with several layers of obfuscation, including encrypting the files.5
- Lazarus Group malware uses multiple types of encryption and encoding in its malware files, including AES, Caracachs, RC4, basic XOR with constant 0xA7, and other techniques.678
- Droppers used by Putter Panda use RC4 or a 16-byte XOR key consisting of the bytes 0xA0 – 0xAF to obfuscate payloads.9
- Most of the strings in ADVSTORESHELL are encrypted with an XOR-based algorithm; some strings are also encrypted with 3DES and reversed. API function names are also reversed, presumably to avoid detection in memory.101
- CORESHELL obfuscates strings using a custom stream cipher.11
- The payload of CozyCar is encrypted with simple XOR with a rotating key. The CozyCar configuration file has been encrypted with RC4 keys.12
- The DustySky dropper uses a function to obfuscate the name of functions and other parts of the malware.13
- Elise encrypts several of its files, including configuration files.14
- Variants of Emissary encrypt payloads using various XOR ciphers, as well as a custom algorithm that uses the "srand" and "rand" functions.1516
- H1N1 uses multiple techniques to obfuscate strings, including XOR.17
- HTTPBrowser's code may be obfuscated through structured exception handling and return-oriented programming.18
- Hi-Zor uses various XOR techniques to obfuscate its components.19
- Many strings in JHUHUGIT are obfuscated with a XOR algorithm.2021
- OLDBAIT obfuscates internal strings and unpacks them at startup.11
- POSHSPY appends a file signature header (randomly selected from six file types) to encrypted data prior to upload or download.22
- If the victim is using PowerShell 3.0 or later, POWERSOURCE writes its decoded payload to an Alternate Data Stream (ADS) named kernel32.dll that is saved in
- Pisloader obfuscates files by splitting strings into smaller sub-strings and including "garbage" strings that are never used. The malware also uses return-oriented programming (ROP) technique and single-byte XOR to obfuscate data.24
- PowerDuke uses an alternate data stream (ADS) PNG file to hide and encrypt itself using Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA).25
- Some resources in Prikormka are encrypted with a simple XOR operation or encoded with Base64.26
- RTM strings, network data, configuration, and modules are encrypted with a modified RC4 algorithm.27
- A RedLeaves configuration file is encrypted with a simple XOR key, 0x53.28
- Some data in Remsec is encrypted using RC5 in CBC mode, AES-CBC with a hardcoded key, RC4, or Salsa20. Some data is also base64-encoded.2930
- SHOTPUT is obscured using XOR encoding and appended to a valid GIF file.3132
- Sakula uses single-byte XOR obfuscation to obfuscate many of its files.33
- Shamoon contains base64-encoded strings.34
- StreamEx obfuscates some commands by using statically programmed fragments of strings when starting a DLL. It also uses a one-byte xor against 0x91 to encode configuration data.35
- TINYTYPHON has used XOR with 0x90 to obfuscate its configuration file.36
- Most strings in USBStealer are encrypted using 3DES and XOR and reversed.37
- A version of XTunnel introduced in July 2015 obfuscated the binary using opaque predicates and other techniques in a likely attempt to obfuscate it and bypass security products.38
Detection of file obfuscation is difficult unless artifacts are left behind by the obfuscation process that are uniquely detectable with a signature. If detection of the obfuscation itself is not possible, it may be possible to detect the malicious activity that caused the obfuscated file (for example, the method that was used to write, read, or modify the file on the file system).
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- Carr, N.. (2017, May 14). Cyber Espionage is Alive and Well: APT32 and the Threat to Global Corporations. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Bohannon, D.. (2017, March 13). Invoke-Obfuscation - PowerShell Obfuscator. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Gross, J. (2016, February 23). Operation Dust Storm. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
- Scott-Railton, J., et al. (2016, August 2). Group5: Syria and the Iranian Connection. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
- Novetta Threat Research Group. (2016, February 24). Operation Blockbuster: Unraveling the Long Thread of the Sony Attack. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
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- Novetta Threat Research Group. (2016, February 24). Operation Blockbuster: Remote Administration Tools & Content Staging Malware Report. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
- Crowdstrike Global Intelligence Team. (2014, June 9). CrowdStrike Intelligence Report: Putter Panda. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
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- Falcone, R., et al.. (2015, June 16). Operation Lotus Blossom. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
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- Falcone, R. and Miller-Osborn, J.. (2016, February 3). Emissary Trojan Changelog: Did Operation Lotus Blossom Cause It to Evolve?. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
- Reynolds, J.. (2016, September 13). H1N1: Technical analysis reveals new capabilities. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
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- ESET. (2016, October). En Route with Sednit - Part 1: Approaching the Target. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
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- Adair, S.. (2016, November 9). PowerDuke: Widespread Post-Election Spear Phishing Campaigns Targeting Think Tanks and NGOs. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- Cherepanov, A.. (2016, May 17). Operation Groundbait: Analysis of a surveillance toolkit. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- Faou, M. and Boutin, J.. (2017, February). Read The Manual: A Guide to the RTM Banking Trojan. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
- PwC and BAE Systems. (2017, April). Operation Cloud Hopper: Technical Annex. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- Symantec Security Response. (2016, August 8). Backdoor.Remsec indicators of compromise. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
- Kaspersky Lab's Global Research & Analysis Team. (2016, August 9). The ProjectSauron APT. Technical Analysis. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
- Eng, E., Caselden, D.. (2015, June 23). Operation Clandestine Wolf – Adobe Flash Zero-Day in APT3 Phishing Campaign. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- Falcone, R. and Wartell, R.. (2015, July 27). Observations on CVE-2015-3113, Prior Zero-Days and the Pirpi Payload. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
- Dell SecureWorks Counter Threat Unit Threat Intelligence. (2015, July 30). Sakula Malware Family. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
- Falcone, R.. (2016, November 30). Shamoon 2: Return of the Disttrack Wiper. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- Cylance SPEAR Team. (2017, February 9). Shell Crew Variants Continue to Fly Under Big AV’s Radar. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
- Settle, A., et al. (2016, August 8). MONSOON - Analysis Of An APT Campaign. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
- Calvet, J. (2014, November 11). Sednit Espionage Group Attacking Air-Gapped Networks. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
- ESET. (2016, October). En Route with Sednit - Part 2: Observing the Comings and Goings. Retrieved November 21, 2016.