System Network Configuration Discovery

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System Network Configuration Discovery
Technique
ID T1016
Tactic Discovery
Platform Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2012, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Vista, Windows 8.1, Linux, Windows 10, MacOS, OS X
Permissions Required User
Data Sources Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring
CAPEC ID CAPEC-309

Adversaries will likely look for details about the network configuration and settings of systems they access or through information discovery of remote systems. Several operating system administration utilities exist that can be used to gather this information. Examples include Arp, ipconfig/ifconfig, nbtstat, and route.

Examples

  • A keylogging tool used by APT3 gathers network information from the victim, including the MAC address, IP address, WINS, DHCP server, and gateway.1
  • Ke3chang performs local network configuration discovery using ipconfig /all.2
  • Lazarus Group malware IndiaIndia obtains and sends to its C2 server information about the first network interface card’s configuration, including IP address, gateways, subnet mask, DHCP information, and whether WINS is available.3
  • Naikon uses commands such as netsh interface show to discover network interface settings.4
  • Stealth Falcon malware gathers the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table from the victim.5
  • Threat Group-3390 actors use nbtscan to discover vulnerable systems.6
  • Turla surveys a system upon check-in to discover network configuration details using the arp -a, nbtstat -n, and net config commands.7
  • admin@338 actors used the following command after exploiting a machine with LOWBALL malware to acquire information about local networks: ipconfig /all >> %temp%\download8
  • menuPass has used several tools to scan for open NetBIOS nameservers and enumerate NetBIOS sessions.9
  • Agent.btz collects the network adapter’s IP and MAC address as well as IP addresses of the network adapter’s default gateway, primary/secondary WINS, DHCP, and DNS servers, and saves them into a log file.10
  • Arp can be used to display ARP configuration information on the host.
  • BlackEnergy has gathered information about network IP configurations using ipconfig.exe and about routing tables using route.exe.1112
  • Crimson contains a command to collect the victim MAC address and LAN IP.13
  • The reconnaissance modules used with Duqu can collect information on network configuration.14
  • Elise executes ipconfig /all after initial communication is made to the remote server.15
  • Emissary has the capability to execute the command ipconfig /all.16
  • GeminiDuke collects information on network settings and Internet proxy settings from the victim.17
  • Mis-Type may create a file containing the results of the command cmd.exe /c ipconfig /all.18
  • MoonWind obtains the victim IP address.19
  • Pisloader has a command to collect the victim's IP address.20
  • PowerDuke has a command to get the victim's domain and NetBIOS name.21
  • A module in Prikormka collects information from the victim about its IP addresses and MAC addresses.22
  • RedLeaves can obtain information about network parameters.9
  • Remsec can obtain information about network configuration, including the routing table, ARP cache, and DNS cache.23
  • Shamoon obtains the target's IP address and local network segment.24
  • Sykipot may use ipconfig /all to gather system network configuration details.25
  • Sys10 collects the local IP address of the victim and sends it to the C2.4
  • T9000 gathers and beacons the MAC and IP addresses during installation.26
  • Unknown Logger can obtain information about the victim's IP address.27
  • ifconfig can be used to display adapter configuration on Unix systems, including information for TCP/IP, DNS, and DHCP.
  • ipconfig can be used to display adapter configuration on Windows systems, including information for TCP/IP, DNS, and DHCP.
  • nbtstat can be used to discover local NetBIOS domain names.
  • route can be used to discover routing configuration information.

Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to acquire information about a system's network configuration, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting28 tools, like AppLocker,2930 or Software Restriction Policies31 where appropriate.32

Detection

System and network discovery techniques normally occur throughout an operation as an adversary learns the environment. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as Lateral Movement, based on the information obtained.

Monitor processes and command-line arguments for actions that could be taken to gather system and network information. Remote access tools with built-in features may interact directly with the Windows API to gather information. Information may also be acquired through Windows system management tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

References

  1. ^  Symantec Security Response. (2016, September 6). Buckeye cyberespionage group shifts gaze from US to Hong Kong. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
  2. ^  Villeneuve, N., Bennett, J. T., Moran, N., Haq, T., Scott, M., & Geers, K. (2014). OPERATION “KE3CHANG”: Targeted Attacks Against Ministries of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
  3. ^  Novetta Threat Research Group. (2016, February 24). Operation Blockbuster: Loaders, Installers and Uninstallers Report. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
  4. a b  Baumgartner, K., Golovkin, M.. (2015, May). The MsnMM Campaigns: The Earliest Naikon APT Campaigns. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
  5. ^  Marczak, B. and Scott-Railton, J.. (2016, May 29). Keep Calm and (Don’t) Enable Macros: A New Threat Actor Targets UAE Dissidents. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  6. ^  Dell SecureWorks Counter Threat Unit Threat Intelligence. (2015, August 5). Threat Group-3390 Targets Organizations for Cyberespionage. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
  7. ^  Kaspersky Lab's Global Research and Analysis Team. (2014, August 7). The Epic Turla Operation: Solving some of the mysteries of Snake/Uroburos. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
  8. ^  FireEye Threat Intelligence. (2015, December 1). China-based Cyber Threat Group Uses Dropbox for Malware Communications and Targets Hong Kong Media Outlets. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
  9. a b  PwC and BAE Systems. (2017, April). Operation Cloud Hopper: Technical Annex. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
  10. ^  Shevchenko, S.. (2008, November 30). Agent.btz - A Threat That Hit Pentagon. Retrieved April 8, 2016.
  11. ^  F-Secure Labs. (2014). BlackEnergy & Quedagh: The convergence of crimeware and APT attacks. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
  12. ^  Baumgartner, K. and Garnaeva, M.. (2014, November 3). BE2 custom plugins, router abuse, and target profiles. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
  13. ^  Huss, D.. (2016, March 1). Operation Transparent Tribe. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  14. ^  Symantec Security Response. (2011, November). W32.Duqu: The precursor to the next Stuxnet. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  15. ^  Falcone, R., et al.. (2015, June 16). Operation Lotus Blossom. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
  16. ^  Falcone, R. and Miller-Osborn, J.. (2016, February 3). Emissary Trojan Changelog: Did Operation Lotus Blossom Cause It to Evolve?. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
  1. ^  F-Secure Labs. (2015, September 17). The Dukes: 7 years of Russian cyberespionage. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  2. ^  Gross, J. (2016, February 23). Operation Dust Storm. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  3. ^  Miller-Osborn, J. and Grunzweig, J.. (2017, March 30). Trochilus and New MoonWind RATs Used In Attack Against Thai Organizations. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
  4. ^  Grunzweig, J., et al. (2016, May 24). New Wekby Attacks Use DNS Requests As Command and Control Mechanism. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
  5. ^  Adair, S.. (2016, November 9). PowerDuke: Widespread Post-Election Spear Phishing Campaigns Targeting Think Tanks and NGOs. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
  6. ^  Cherepanov, A.. (2016, May 17). Operation Groundbait: Analysis of a surveillance toolkit. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
  7. ^  Kaspersky Lab's Global Research & Analysis Team. (2016, August 9). The ProjectSauron APT. Technical Analysis. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
  8. ^  Falcone, R.. (2016, November 30). Shamoon 2: Return of the Disttrack Wiper. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
  9. ^  Blasco, J. (2011, December 12). Another Sykipot sample likely targeting US federal agencies. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
  10. ^  Grunzweig, J. and Miller-Osborn, J.. (2016, February 4). T9000: Advanced Modular Backdoor Uses Complex Anti-Analysis Techniques. Retrieved April 15, 2016.
  11. ^  Settle, A., et al. (2016, August 8). MONSOON - Analysis Of An APT Campaign. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
  12. ^  Beechey, J. (2010, December). Application Whitelisting: Panacea or Propaganda?. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
  13. ^  Tomonaga, S. (2016, January 26). Windows Commands Abused by Attackers. Retrieved February 2, 2016.
  14. ^  NSA Information Assurance Directorate. (2014, August). Application Whitelisting Using Microsoft AppLocker. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
  15. ^  Corio, C., & Sayana, D. P. (2008, June). Application Lockdown with Software Restriction Policies. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
  16. ^  Microsoft. (2012, June 27). Using Software Restriction Policies and AppLocker Policies. Retrieved April 7, 2016.