System Network Configuration Discovery

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System Network Configuration Discovery
Technique
ID T1016
Tactic Discovery
Platform Linux, macOS, Windows
Permissions Required User
Data Sources Process command-line parameters, Process monitoring
CAPEC ID CAPEC-309

Adversaries will likely look for details about the network configuration and settings of systems they access or through information discovery of remote systems. Several operating system administration utilities exist that can be used to gather this information. Examples include Arp, ipconfig/ifconfig, nbtstat, and route.

Examples

  • A keylogging tool used by APT3 gathers network information from the victim, including the MAC address, IP address, WINS, DHCP server, and gateway.1 2
  • Ke3chang performs local network configuration discovery using ipconfig /all.3
  • Lazarus Group malware IndiaIndia obtains and sends to its C2 server information about the first network interface card’s configuration, including IP address, gateways, subnet mask, DHCP information, and whether WINS is available.4
  • Magic Hound malware gathers the victim's local IP address, MAC address, and external IP address.5
  • Naikon uses commands such as netsh interface show to discover network interface settings.6
  • OilRig has run ipconfig /all on a victim.78
  • Stealth Falcon malware gathers the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table from the victim.9
  • Threat Group-3390 actors use nbtscan to discover vulnerable systems.10
  • Turla surveys a system upon check-in to discover network configuration details using the arp -a, nbtstat -n, and net config commands.11
  • admin@338 actors used the following command after exploiting a machine with LOWBALL malware to acquire information about local networks: ipconfig /all >> %temp%\download12
  • menuPass has used several tools to scan for open NetBIOS nameservers and enumerate NetBIOS sessions.13
  • Agent.btz collects the network adapter’s IP and MAC address as well as IP addresses of the network adapter’s default gateway, primary/secondary WINS, DHCP, and DNS servers, and saves them into a log file.14
  • Arp can be used to display ARP configuration information on the host.
  • BlackEnergy has gathered information about network IP configurations using ipconfig.exe and about routing tables using route.exe.1516
  • Crimson contains a command to collect the victim MAC address and LAN IP.17
  • The reconnaissance modules used with Duqu can collect information on network configuration.18
  • Elise executes ipconfig /all after initial communication is made to the remote server.19
  • Emissary has the capability to execute the command ipconfig /all.20
  • FALLCHILL collects MAC address and local IP address information from the victim.21
  • Felismus collects the victim LAN IP address and sends it to the C2 server.22
  • GeminiDuke collects information on network settings and Internet proxy settings from the victim.23
  • Hydraq creates a backdoor through which remote attackers can retrieve IP addresses of compromised machines.2425
  • A JHUHUGIT variant gathers network interface card information.26
  • JPIN can obtain network information, including DNS, IP, and proxies.27
  • Mis-Type may create a file containing the results of the command cmd.exe /c ipconfig /all.28
  • MoonWind obtains the victim IP address.29
  • Naid collects the domain name from a compromised host.30
  • NanHaiShu can gather information about the victim proxy server.31
  • OSInfo discovers the current domain information 1.
  • Orz can gather victim proxy information.31
  • POWERSTATS can retrieve IP and network adapter configuration information from compromised hosts.32
  • POWRUNER may collect network configuration data by running ipconfig /all on a victim.33
  • Pisloader has a command to collect the victim's IP address.34
  • PowerDuke has a command to get the victim's domain and NetBIOS name.35
  • A module in Prikormka collects information from the victim about its IP addresses and MAC addresses.36
  • Pupy has built in commands to identify a host’s IP address and find out other network configuration settings by viewing connected sessions.37
  • Reaver collects the victim's IP address.38
  • RedLeaves can obtain information about network parameters.13
  • Remsec can obtain information about network configuration, including the routing table, ARP cache, and DNS cache.39
  • Shamoon obtains the target's IP address and local network segment.40
  • Sykipot may use ipconfig /all to gather system network configuration details.41
  • Sys10 collects the local IP address of the victim and sends it to the C2.6
  • T9000 gathers and beacons the MAC and IP addresses during installation.42
  • Unknown Logger can obtain information about the victim's IP address.43
  • ZeroT gathers the victim's IP address and domain information, and then sends it to its C2 server.44
  • ifconfig can be used to display adapter configuration on Unix systems, including information for TCP/IP, DNS, and DHCP.
  • ipconfig can be used to display adapter configuration on Windows systems, including information for TCP/IP, DNS, and DHCP.
  • nbtstat can be used to discover local NetBIOS domain names.
  • route can be used to discover routing configuration information.

Mitigation

Identify unnecessary system utilities or potentially malicious software that may be used to acquire information about a system's network configuration, and audit and/or block them by using whitelisting45 tools, like AppLocker,4647 or Software Restriction Policies48 where appropriate.49

Detection

System and network discovery techniques normally occur throughout an operation as an adversary learns the environment. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as Lateral Movement, based on the information obtained.

Monitor processes and command-line arguments for actions that could be taken to gather system and network information. Remote access tools with built-in features may interact directly with the Windows API to gather information. Information may also be acquired through Windows system management tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell.

References

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