Groups are sets of related intrusion activity that are tracked by a common name in the security community. Groups are also sometimes referred to as campaigns or intrusion sets. Some groups have multiple names associated with the same set of activities due to various organizations tracking the same set of activities by different names.
Groups are mapped to publicly reported technique use and referenced in the ATT&CK threat model. Groups are also mapped to reported software used during intrusions.
This is the list of publicly reported groups tracked in ATT&CK:
|APT1 is a Chinese threat group that has been attributed to the 2nd Bureau of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) General Staff Department’s (GSD) 3rd Department, commonly known by its Military Unit Cover Designator (MUCD) as Unit 61398.1|
|APT12 is a threat group that has been attributed to China.2 It is also known as DynCalc, IXESHE, and Numbered Panda.32|
|APT16||APT16||APT16 is a China-based threat group that has launched spearphishing campaigns targeting Japanese and Taiwanese organizations.4|
|APT17 is a China-based threat group that has conducted network intrusions against U.S. government entities, the defense industry, law firms, information technology companies, mining companies, and non-government organizations.5|
|APT18 is a threat group that has operated since at least 2009 and has targeted a range of industries, including technology, manufacturing, human rights groups, government, and medical.6|
|APT28 is a threat group that has been attributed to the Russian government.78910 This group reportedly compromised the Democratic National Committee in April 2016.11|
|APT29 is threat group that has been attributed to the Russian government and has operated since at least 2008.1210 This group reportedly compromised the Democratic National Committee starting in the summer of 2015.11|
|APT3 is a China-based threat group.13 This group is responsible for the campaigns known as Operation Clandestine Fox, Operation Clandestine Wolf, and Operation Double Tap.1314 As of June 2015, the group appears to have shifted from targeting primarily US victims to primarily political organizations in Hong Kong.15|
|APT30||APT30||APT30 is a threat group suspected to be associated with the Chinese government.16 While Naikon shares some characteristics with APT30, the two groups do not appear to be exact matches.17|
|Axiom is a cyber espionage group suspected to be associated with the Chinese government.18 It is responsible for the Operation SMN campaign.18|
|Carbanak is a threat group that mainly targets banks. It also refers to malware of the same name (Carbanak).19|
Threat Group 2889
|Cleaver is a threat group that has been attributed to Iranian actors and is responsible for activity tracked as Operation Cleaver.20 Strong circumstantial evidence suggests Cleaver is linked to Threat Group 2889 (TG-2889).21|
|Darkhotel||Darkhotel||Darkhotel is a threat group that has been active since at least 2004. The group has conducted activity on hotel and business center Wi‑Fi and physical connections as well as peer-to-peer and file sharing networks. The actors have also conducted spearphishing.22|
|Deep Panda||Deep Panda|
|Deep Panda is a suspected Chinese threat group known to target many industries, including government, defense, financial, and telecommunications.23 The intrusion into healthcare company Anthem has been attributed to Deep Panda.24 This group is also known as Shell Crew, WebMasters, KungFu Kittens, and PinkPanther.25 Deep Panda also appears to be known as Black Vine based on the attribution of both group names to the Anthem intrusion.26|
|DragonOK||DragonOK||DragonOK is a threat group that has targeted Japanese organizations with phishing emails. Due to overlapping TTPs, including similar custom tools, DragonOK is thought to have a direct or indirect relationship with the threat group Moafee. 2728 It is known to use a variety of malware, including Sysget/HelloBridge, PlugX, PoisonIvy, FormerFirstRat, NFlog, and NewCT. 29|
|Dragonfly is a cyber espionage group that has been active since at least 2011. They initially targeted defense and aviation companies but shifted to focus on the energy sector in early 2013. They have also targeted companies related to industrial control systems.30|
|Dust Storm||Dust Storm||Dust Storm is a threat group that has targeted multiple industries in Japan, South Korea, the United States, Europe, and several Southeast Asian countries.31|
|Equation||Equation||Equation is a sophisticated threat group that employs multiple remote access tools. The group is known to use zero-day exploits and has developed the capability to overwrite the firmware of hard disk drives.32|
|FIN6||FIN6||FIN6 is a cyber crime group that has stolen payment card data and sold it for profit on underground marketplaces. This group has aggressively targeted and compromised point of sale (PoS) systems in the hospitality and retail sectors.33|
|GCMAN||GCMAN||GCMAN is a threat group that focuses on targeting banks for the purpose of transferring money to e-currency services.34|
|Group5||Group5||Group5 is a threat group with a suspected Iranian nexus, though this attribution is not definite. The group has targeted individuals connected to the Syrian opposition via spearphishing and watering holes, normally using Syrian and Iranian themes. Group5 has used two commonly available remote access tools (RATs), njRAT and NanoCore, as well as an Android RAT, DroidJack.35|
|Ke3chang||Ke3chang||Ke3chang is a threat group attributed to actors operating out of China.36|
|Lazarus Group||Lazarus Group||Lazarus Group is a threat group that has been active since at least 2009 and was reportedly responsible for the November 2014 destructive wiper attack against Sony Pictures Entertainment. It was responsible for a campaign known as Operation Blockbuster. Malware used by Lazarus Group correlates to other reported campaigns, including Operation Flame, Operation 1Mission, Operation Troy, DarkSeoul, and Ten Days of Rain.37|
|Lotus Blossom||Lotus Blossom|
|Lotus Blossom is threat group that has targeted government and military organizations in Southeast Asia.38 It is also known as Spring Dragon.39|
|MONSOON is the name of an espionage campaign that apparently started in December 2015 and was ongoing as of July 2016. It is believed that the actors behind MONSOON are the same actors behind Operation Hangover. While attribution is unclear, the campaign has targeted victims with military and political interests in the Indian Subcontinent.40 Operation Hangover has been reported as being Indian in origin, and can be traced back to 2010.41|
|Moafee||Moafee||Moafee is a threat group that appears to operate from the Guandong Province of China. Due to overlapping TTPs, including similar custom tools, Moafee is thought to have a direct or indirect relationship with the threat group DragonOK. .42|
|Molerats is a politically-motivated threat group that has been operating since 2012. The group's victims have primarily been in the Middle East, Europe, and the United States.4344|
|Naikon||Naikon||Naikon is a threat group that has focused on targets around the South China Sea.45 The group has been attributed to the Chinese People’s Liberation Army’s (PLA) Chengdu Military Region Second Technical Reconnaissance Bureau (Military Unit Cover Designator 78020).46 While Naikon shares some characteristics with APT30, the two groups do not appear to be exact matches.17|
|Night Dragon||Night Dragon||Night Dragon is a threat group that has conducted activity originating primarily in China.47|
|Patchwork is a threat group that was first observed in December 2015. While the group has not been definitively attributed, circumstantial evidence suggests the group may be a pro-Indian or Indian entity. Much of the code used by this group was copied and pasted from online forums.4849|
|PittyTiger||PittyTiger||PittyTiger is a threat group believed to operate out of China that uses multiple different types of malware to maintain command and control.5051|
|Poseidon Group||Poseidon Group||Poseidon Group is a Portuguese-speaking threat group that has been active since at least 2005. The group has a history of using information exfiltrated from victims to blackmail victim companies into contracting the Poseidon Group as a security firm.52|
|Putter Panda||Putter Panda|
|Putter Panda is a Chinese threat group that has been attributed to Unit 61486 of the 12th Bureau of the PLA’s 3rd General Staff Department (GSD).53|
|Sandworm Team||Sandworm Team|
|Sandworm Team is a cyber espionage group that has operated since approximately 2009 and has been attributed to Russia.54 This group is also known as Quedagh.55|
|Scarlet Mimic||Scarlet Mimic||Scarlet Mimic is a threat group that has targeted minority rights activists. This group has not been directly linked to a government source, but the group's motivations appear to overlap with those of the Chinese government. While there is some overlap between IP addresses used by Scarlet Mimic and Putter Panda, it has not been concluded that the groups are the same.56|
|Stealth Falcon||Stealth Falcon||Stealth Falcon is a threat group that has conducted targeted spyware attacks against Emirati journalists, activists, and dissidents since at least 2012. Circumstantial evidence suggests there could be a link between this group and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) government, but that has not been confirmed.57|
|Strider is a threat group that has been active since at least 2011 and has targeted victims in Russia, China, Sweden, Belgium, Iran, and Rwanda.5859|
|Suckfly||Suckfly||Suckfly is a China-based threat group that has been active since at least 2014.60|
|Taidoor||Taidoor||Taidoor is a threat group that has operated since at least 2009 and has primarily targeted the Taiwanese government.61|
|Threat Group-1314||Threat Group-1314|
|Threat Group-1314 is an unattributed threat group that has used compromised credentials to log into a victim's remote access infrastructure.62|
|Threat Group-3390||Threat Group-3390|
|Threat Group-3390 is a Chinese threat group that has extensively used strategic Web compromises to target victims.63|
|Turla is a threat group that has infected victims in over 45 countries, spanning a range of industries including government, embassies, military, education, research and pharmaceutical companies.64|
|admin@338||admin@338||admin@338 is a China-based cyber threat group. It has previously used newsworthy events as lures to deliver malware and has primarily targeted organizations involved in financial, economic, and trade policy, typically using publicly available RATs such as PoisonIvy, as well as some non-public backdoors.65|
- Mandiant. (n.d.). APT1 Exposing One of China’s Cyber Espionage Units. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- Meyers, A. (2013, March 29). Whois Numbered Panda. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- Moran, N., Oppenheim, M., Engle, S., & Wartell, R.. (2014, September 3). Darwin’s Favorite APT Group [Blog]. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
- Winters, R.. (2015, December 20). The EPS Awakens - Part 2. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
- FireEye Labs/FireEye Threat Intelligence. (2015, May 14). Hiding in Plain Sight: FireEye and Microsoft Expose Obfuscation Tactic. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
- Carvey, H.. (2014, September 2). Where you AT?: Indicators of lateral movement using at.exe on Windows 7 systems. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
- FireEye. (2015). APT28: A WINDOW INTO RUSSIA’S CYBER ESPIONAGE OPERATIONS?. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- SecureWorks Counter Threat Unit Threat Intelligence. (2016, June 16). Threat Group-4127 Targets Hillary Clinton Presidential Campaign. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- FireEye iSIGHT Intelligence. (2017, January 11). APT28: At the Center of the Storm. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- Department of Homeland Security and Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2016, December 29). GRIZZLY STEPPE – Russian Malicious Cyber Activity. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- Alperovitch, D.. (2016, June 15). Bears in the Midst: Intrusion into the Democratic National Committee. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- F-Secure Labs. (2015, September 17). The Dukes: 7 years of Russian cyberespionage. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
- Eng, E., Caselden, D.. (2015, June 23). Operation Clandestine Wolf – Adobe Flash Zero-Day in APT3 Phishing Campaign. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- Moran, N., et al. (2014, November 21). Operation Double Tap. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- Symantec Security Response. (2016, September 6). Buckeye cyberespionage group shifts gaze from US to Hong Kong. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
- FireEye Labs. (2015, April). APT30 AND THE MECHANICS OF A LONG-RUNNING CYBER ESPIONAGE OPERATION. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- Baumgartner, K., Golovkin, M.. (2015, May 14). The Naikon APT. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
- Novetta. (n.d.). Operation SMN: Axiom Threat Actor Group Report. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
- Kaspersky Lab's Global Research and Analysis Team. (2015, February). CARBANAK APT THE GREAT BANK ROBBERY. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
- Cylance. (2014, December). Operation Cleaver. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
- Dell SecureWorks. (2015, October 7). Suspected Iran-Based Hacker Group Creates Network of Fake LinkedIn Profiles. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- Kaspersky Lab's Global Research and Analysis Team. (2014, November). The Darkhotel APT A Story of Unusual Hospitality. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
- Alperovitch, D. (2014, July 7). Deep in Thought: Chinese Targeting of National Security Think Tanks. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
- ThreatConnect Research Team. (2015, February 27). The Anthem Hack: All Roads Lead to China. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
- RSA Incident Response. (2014, January). RSA Incident Response Emerging Threat Profile: Shell Crew. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- DiMaggio, J.. (2015, August 6). The Black Vine cyberespionage group. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
- Haq, T., Moran, N., Vashisht, S., Scott, M. (2014, September). OPERATION QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Haq, T. (2014, October). An Insight into Symbiotic APT Groups. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Miller-Osborn, J., Grunzweig, J.. (2015, April). Unit 42 Identifies New DragonOK Backdoor Malware Deployed Against Japanese Targets. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Symantec Security Response. (2014, July 7). Dragonfly: Cyberespionage Attacks Against Energy Suppliers. Retrieved April 8, 2016.
- Gross, J. (2016, February 23). Operation Dust Storm. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
- Kaspersky Lab's Global Research and Analysis Team. (2015, February). Equation Group: Questions and Answers. Retrieved December 21, 2015.
- FireEye Threat Intelligence. (2016, April). Follow the Money: Dissecting the Operations of the Cyber Crime Group FIN6. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- Kaspersky Lab's Global Research & Analysis Team. (2016, February 8). APT-style bank robberies increase with Metel, GCMAN and Carbanak 2.0 attacks. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
- Scott-Railton, J., et al. (2016, August 2). Group5: Syria and the Iranian Connection. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
- Villeneuve, N., Bennett, J. T., Moran, N., Haq, T., Scott, M., & Geers, K. (2014). OPERATION “KE3CHANG”: Targeted Attacks Against Ministries of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
- Novetta Threat Research Group. (2016, February 24). Operation Blockbuster: Unraveling the Long Thread of the Sony Attack. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
- Falcone, R., et al.. (2015, June 16). Operation Lotus Blossom. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
- Baumgartner, K.. (2015, June 17). The Spring Dragon APT. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
- Settle, A., et al. (2016, August 8). MONSOON - Analysis Of An APT Campaign. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
- Fagerland, S., et al. (2013, May). Operation Hangover: Unveiling an Indian Cyberattack Infrastructure. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
- Haq, T., Moran, N., Scott, M., & Vashisht, S. O. (2014, September 10). The Path to Mass-Producing Cyber Attacks [Blog]. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
- ClearSky. (2016, January 7). Operation DustySky. Retrieved January 8, 2016.
- ClearSky Cybersecurity. (2016, June 9). Operation DustySky – Part 2. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- Baumgartner, K., Golovkin, M.. (2015, May). The MsnMM Campaigns: The Earliest Naikon APT Campaigns. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
- ThreatConnect Inc. and Defense Group Inc. (DGI). (2015, September 23). Project CameraShy: Closing the Aperture on China's Unit 78020. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
- McAfee® Foundstone® Professional Services and McAfee Labs™. (2011, February 10). Global Energy Cyberattacks: “Night Dragon”. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
- Cymmetria. (2016). Unveiling Patchwork - The Copy-Paste APT. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- Hamada, J.. (2016, July 25). Patchwork cyberespionage group expands targets from governments to wide range of industries. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
- Bizeul, D., Fontarensky, I., Mouchoux, R., Perigaud, F., Pernet, C. (2014, July 11). Eye of the Tiger. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- Villeneuve, N., Homan, J. (2014, July 31). Spy of the Tiger. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- Kaspersky Lab's Global Research and Analysis Team. (2016, February 9). Poseidon Group: a Targeted Attack Boutique specializing in global cyber-espionage. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
- Crowdstrike Global Intelligence Team. (2014, June 9). CrowdStrike Intelligence Report: Putter Panda. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
- Ward, S.. (2014, October 14). Sandworm Team and the Ukrainian Power Authority Attacks. Retrieved April 8, 2016.
- F-Secure Labs. (2014). BlackEnergy & Quedagh: The convergence of crimeware and APT attacks. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
- Falcone, R. and Miller-Osborn, J.. (2016, January 24). Scarlet Mimic: Years-Long Espionage Campaign Targets Minority Activists. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
- Marczak, B. and Scott-Railton, J.. (2016, May 29). Keep Calm and (Don’t) Enable Macros: A New Threat Actor Targets UAE Dissidents. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
- Symantec Security Response. (2016, August 7). Strider: Cyberespionage group turns eye of Sauron on targets. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
- Kaspersky Lab's Global Research & Analysis Team. (2016, August 8). ProjectSauron: top level cyber-espionage platform covertly extracts encrypted government comms. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
- DiMaggio, J.. (2016, March 15). Suckfly: Revealing the secret life of your code signing certificates. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- Trend Micro. (2012). The Taidoor Campaign. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
- Dell SecureWorks Counter Threat Unit Special Operations Team. (2015, May 28). Living off the Land. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
- Dell SecureWorks Counter Threat Unit Threat Intelligence. (2015, August 5). Threat Group-3390 Targets Organizations for Cyberespionage. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
- Kaspersky Lab's Global Research and Analysis Team. (2014, August 7). The Epic Turla Operation: Solving some of the mysteries of Snake/Uroburos. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
- FireEye Threat Intelligence. (2015, December 1). China-based Cyber Threat Group Uses Dropbox for Malware Communications and Targets Hong Kong Media Outlets. Retrieved December 4, 2015.