Credential access represents techniques resulting in access to or control over system, domain, or service credentials that are used within an enterprise environment. Adversaries will likely attempt to obtain legitimate credentials from users or administrator accounts (local system administrator or domain users with administrator access) to use within the network. This allows the adversary to assume the identity of the account, with all of that account's permissions on the system and network, and makes it harder for defenders to detect the adversary. With sufficient access within a network, an adversary can create accounts for later use within the environment.
Below is a list of all the Credential Access techniques in enterprise:
|Account Manipulation||Credential Access||Account manipulation may aid adversaries in maintaining access to credentials and certain permission levels within an environment. Manipulation could consist of modifying permissions, adding or changing permission groups, modifying account settings, or modifying how authentication is performed. In order to create or manipulate accounts, the adversary must already have sufficient permissions on systems or the domain.|
|Bash History||Credential Access||Bash keeps track of the commands users type on the command-line with the "history" utility. Once a user logs out, the history is flushed to the user’s |
|Brute Force||Credential Access||Adversaries may use brute force techniques to attempt access to accounts when passwords are unknown or when password hashes are obtained.
Credential Dumping to obtain password hashes may only get an adversary so far when Pass the Hash is not an option. Techniques to systematically guess the passwords used to compute hashes are available, or the adversary may use a pre-computed rainbow table. Cracking hashes is usually done on adversary-controlled systems outside of the target network.Wikipedia Password cracking
Adversaries may attempt to brute force logins without knowledge of passwords or hashes during an operation either with zero knowledge or by attempting a list of known or possible passwords. This is a riskier option because it could cause numerous authentication failures and account lockouts, depending on the organization's login failure policies.Cylance CleaverA related technique called password spraying uses one password, or a small list of passwords, that matches the complexity policy of the domain and may be a commonly used password. Logins are attempted with that password and many different accounts on a network to avoid account lockouts that would normally occur when brute forcing a single account with many passwords.BlackHillsInfosec Password Spraying
|Create Account||Credential Access||Adversaries with a sufficient level of access may create a local system or domain account. Such accounts may be used for persistence that do not require persistent remote access tools to be deployed on the system.
|Credential Dumping||Credential Access||Credential dumping is the process of obtaining account login and password information from the operating system and software. Credentials can be used to perform Lateral Movement and access restricted information.
Tools may dump credentials in many different ways: extracting credential hashes for offline cracking, extracting plaintext passwords, and extracting Kerberos tickets, among others. Examples of credential dumpers include pwdump7, Windows Credential Editor, Mimikatz, and gsecdump. These tools are in use by both professional security testers and adversaries.
Plaintext passwords can be obtained using tools such as Mimikatz to extract passwords stored by the Local Security Authority (LSA). If smart cards are used to authenticate to a domain using a personal identification number (PIN), then that PIN is also cached as a result and may be dumped.Github Mimikatz Module sekurlsaDCSync is a variation on credential dumping which can be used to acquire sensitive information from a domain controller. The action works by simulating a domain controller replication process from a remote domain controller, which may contain various pieces of information included in Active Directory such as passwords, historical hashes, and current hashes of potentially useful accounts, such as the KRBTGT account NTLM hash. Any members of the Administrators, Domain Admins, Enterprise Admin groups or computer accounts on the domain controller are able to run DCSync to pull password data.ADSecurity Mimikatz DCSync The hashes can then in turn be used to create a Golden Ticket for use in Pass the Ticket.Harmj0y Mimikatz and DCSync DCSync functionality has been included in the "lsadump" module in Mimikatz.GitHub Mimikatz lsadump Module
|Credentials in Files||Credential Access||Adversaries may search local file systems and remote file shares for files containing passwords. These can be files created by users to store their own credentials, shared credential stores for a group of individuals, configuration files containing passwords for a system or service, or source code/binary files containing embedded passwords. It is possible to extract passwords from backups or saved virtual machines through Credential Dumping.CG 2014 Passwords may also be obtained from Group Policy Preferences stored on the Windows Domain Controller.SRD GPP|
|Exploitation of Vulnerability||Credential Access|
|Exploitation of a software vulnerability occurs when an adversary takes advantage of a programming error in a program, service, or within the operating system software or kernel itself to execute adversary-controlled code. Exploiting software vulnerabilities may allow adversaries to run a command or binary on a remote system for lateral movement, escalate a current process to a higher privilege level, or bypass security mechanisms. Exploits may also allow an adversary access to privileged accounts and credentials. One example of this is MS14-068, which can be used to forge Kerberos tickets using domain user permissions.Technet MS14-068ADSecurity Detecting Forged Tickets|
|Adversaries can use methods of capturing user input for obtaining credentials for Valid Accounts and information Collection that include keylogging and user input field interception.
Keylogging is the most prevalent type of input capture, with many different ways of intercepting keystrokes,Adventures of a Keystroke but other methods exist to target information for specific purposes, such as performing a UAC prompt or wrapping the Windows default credential provider.Wrightson 2012
Keylogging is likely to be used to acquire credentials for new access opportunities when Credential Dumping efforts are not effective, and may require an adversary to remain passive on a system for a period of time before an opportunity arises.Adversaries may also install code on externally facing portals, such as a VPN login page, to capture and transmit credentials of users who attempt to log into the service. This variation on input capture may be conducted post-compromise using legitimate administrative access as a backup measure to maintain network access through External Remote Services and Valid Accounts or as part of the initial compromise by exploitation of the externally facing web service.Volexity Virtual Private Keylogging
|Input Prompt||Credential Access||When programs are executed that need additional privileges than are present in the current user context, it is common for the operating system to prompt the user for proper credentials to authorize the elevated privileges for the task. Adversaries can mimic this functionality to prompt users for credentials with a normal-looking prompt. This type of prompt can be accomplished with AppleScript:
Adversaries can prompt a user for a number of reasons that mimic normal usage, such as a fake installer requiring additional access or a fake malware removal suite.OSX Malware Exploits MacKeeper
|Keychain||Credential Access||Keychains are the built-in way for macOS to keep track of users' passwords and credentials for many services and features such as WiFi passwords, websites, secure notes, certificates, and Kerberos. Keychain files are located in |
|Network Sniffing||Credential Access||Network sniffing refers to using the network interface on a system to monitor or capture information sent over a wired or wireless connection. User credentials may be sent over an insecure, unencrypted protocol that can be captured and obtained through network packet analysis. An adversary may place a network interface into promiscuous mode, using a utility to capture traffic in transit over the network or use span ports to capture a larger amount of data. In addition, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and Domain Name Service (DNS) poisoning can be used to capture credentials to websites, proxies, and internal systems by redirecting traffic to an adversary.|
|Private Keys||Credential Access||Private cryptographic keys and certificates are used for authentication, encryption/decryption, and digital signatures.Wikipedia Public Key Crypto
Adversaries may gather private keys from compromised systems for use in authenticating to Remote Services like SSH or for use in decrypting other collected files such as email. Common key and certificate file extensions include: .key, .pgp, .gpg, .ppk., .p12, .pem, pfx, .cer, .p7b, .asc. Adversaries may also look in common key directories, such as
|Securityd Memory||Credential Access||In OS X prior to El Capitan, users with root access can read plaintext keychain passwords of logged-in users because Apple’s keychain implementation allows these credentials to be cached so that users are not repeatedly prompted for passwords.OS X KeychainExternal to DA, the OS X Way Apple’s securityd utility takes the user’s logon password, encrypts it with PBKDF2, and stores this master key in memory. Apple also uses a set of keys and algorithms to encrypt the user’s password, but once the master key is found, an attacker need only iterate over the other values to unlock the final password.OS X Keychain If an adversary can obtain root access (allowing them to read securityd’s memory), then they can scan through memory to find the correct sequence of keys in relatively few tries to decrypt the user’s logon keychain. This provides the adversary with all the plaintext passwords for users, WiFi, mail, browsers, certificates, secure notes, etc.OS X KeychainOSX Keydnap malware|
|Two-Factor Authentication Interception||Credential Access||Use of two- or multifactor authentication is recommended and provides a higher level of security than user names and passwords alone, but organizations should be aware of techniques that could be used to intercept and bypass these security mechanisms. Adversaries may target authentication mechanisms, such as smart cards, to gain access to systems, services, and network resources.
If a smart card is used for two-factor authentication (2FA), then a keylogger will need to be used to obtain the password associated with a smart card during normal use. With both an inserted card and access to the smart card password, an adversary can connect to a network resource using the infected system to proxy the authentication with the inserted hardware token.Mandiant M Trends 2011
Other methods of 2FA may be intercepted and used by an adversary to authenticate. It is common for one-time codes to be sent via out-of-band communications (email, SMS). If the device and/or service is not secured, then it may be vulnerable to interception. Although primarily focused on by cyber criminals, these authentication mechanisms have been targeted by advanced actors.Operation EmmentalOther hardware tokens, such as RSA SecurID, require the adversary to have access to the physical device or the seed and algorithm in addition to the corresponding credentials.