Runtime Data Manipulation

Adversaries may modify systems in order to manipulate the data as it is accessed and displayed to an end user.[1][2] By manipulating runtime data, adversaries may attempt to affect a business process, organizational understanding, and decision making.

Adversaries may alter application binaries used to display data in order to cause runtime manipulations. Adversaries may also conduct Change Default File Association and Masquerading to cause a similar effect. The type of modification and the impact it will have depends on the target application and process as well as the goals and objectives of the adversary. For complex systems, an adversary would likely need special expertise and possibly access to specialized software related to the system that would typically be gained through a prolonged information gathering campaign in order to have the desired impact.

ID: T1494

Tactic: Impact

Platform:  Linux, macOS, Windows

Permissions Required:  User, Administrator, root, SYSTEM

Data Sources:  File monitoring, Process monitoring

Impact Type:  Integrity

Version: 1.0



APT38 has used DYEPACK.FOX to manipulate PDF data as it is accessed to remove traces of fraudulent SWIFT transactions from the data displayed to the end user.[1]


Identify critical business and system processes that may be targeted by adversaries and work to secure those systems against tampering. Prevent critical business and system processes from being replaced, overwritten, or reconfigured to load potentially malicious code. Identify potentially malicious software and audit and/or block it by using whitelisting[3] tools, like AppLocker,[4][5] or Software Restriction Policies[6] where appropriate.[7]


Inspect important application binary file hashes, locations, and modifications for suspicious/unexpected values.