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AppCert DLLs

Dynamic-link libraries (DLLs) that are specified in the AppCertDLLs value in the Registry key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager are loaded into every process that calls the ubiquitously used application programming interface (API) functions CreateProcess, CreateProcessAsUser, CreateProcessWithLoginW, CreateProcessWithTokenW, or WinExec. [1]

Similar to Process Injection, this value can be abused to obtain persistence and privilege escalation by causing a malicious DLL to be loaded and run in the context of separate processes on the computer.

ID: T1182
Tactic: Persistence, Privilege Escalation
Platform: Windows
Permissions Required: Administrator, SYSTEM
Effective Permissions: Administrator, SYSTEM
Data Sources: Loaded DLLs, Process monitoring, Windows Registry
Version: 1.0

Procedure Examples

Name Description
Honeybee Honeybee's service-based DLL implant can execute a downloaded file with parameters specified using CreateProcessAsUser. [3]
PUNCHBUGGY PUNCHBUGGY can establish using a AppCertDLLs Registry key. [2]


Mitigation Description
Execution Prevention Adversaries install new AppCertDLL binaries to execute this technique. Identify and block potentially malicious software executed through AppCertDLLs functionality by using application whitelisting tools, like Windows Defender Application Control, AppLocker, or Software Restriction Policies where appropriate.


Monitor DLL loads by processes, specifically looking for DLLs that are not recognized or not normally loaded into a process. Monitor the AppCertDLLs Registry value for modifications that do not correlate with known software, patch cycles, etc. Monitor and analyze application programming interface (API) calls that are indicative of Registry edits such as RegCreateKeyEx and RegSetValueEx. [1]

Tools such as Sysinternals Autoruns may overlook AppCert DLLs as an auto-starting location. [4] [5]

Look for abnormal process behavior that may be due to a process loading a malicious DLL. Data and events should not be viewed in isolation, but as part of a chain of behavior that could lead to other activities, such as making network connections for Command and Control, learning details about the environment through Discovery, and conducting Lateral Movement.