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Clear Command History

macOS and Linux both keep track of the commands users type in their terminal so that users can easily remember what they've done. These logs can be accessed in a few different ways. While logged in, this command history is tracked in a file pointed to by the environment variable HISTFILE. When a user logs off a system, this information is flushed to a file in the user's home directory called ~/.bash_history. The benefit of this is that it allows users to go back to commands they've used before in different sessions. Since everything typed on the command-line is saved, passwords passed in on the command line are also saved. Adversaries can abuse this by searching these files for cleartext passwords. Additionally, adversaries can use a variety of methods to prevent their own commands from appear in these logs such as unset HISTFILE, export HISTFILESIZE=0, history -c, rm ~/.bash_history.

ID: T1146
Tactic: Defense Evasion
Platform: Linux, macOS
Permissions Required: User
Data Sources: Authentication logs, File monitoring
Defense Bypassed: Log analysis, Host forensic analysis
Version: 1.0
Created: 14 December 2017
Last Modified: 16 July 2019

Procedure Examples

Name Description
APT41

APT41 attempted to remove evidence of some of its activity by deleting Bash histories.[2]

Mitigations

Mitigation Description
Environment Variable Permissions

Making the associated environment variables read only can make sure that the history is preserved.[1]

Restrict File and Directory Permissions

Preventing users from deleting or writing to certain files can stop adversaries from maliciously altering their ~/.bash_history files.

Detection

User authentication, especially via remote terminal services like SSH, without new entries in that user's ~/.bash_history is suspicious. Additionally, the modification of the HISTFILE and HISTFILESIZE environment variables or the removal/clearing of the ~/.bash_history file are indicators of suspicious activity.

References