The sub-techniques beta is now live! Read the release blog post for more info.

Authentication Package

Windows Authentication Package DLLs are loaded by the Local Security Authority (LSA) process at system start. They provide support for multiple logon processes and multiple security protocols to the operating system. [1]

Adversaries can use the autostart mechanism provided by LSA Authentication Packages for persistence by placing a reference to a binary in the Windows Registry location HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\ with the key value of "Authentication Packages"=. The binary will then be executed by the system when the authentication packages are loaded.

ID: T1131
Tactic: Persistence
Platform: Windows
Permissions Required: Administrator
Data Sources: DLL monitoring, Windows Registry, Loaded DLLs
Version: 1.0
Created: 31 May 2017
Last Modified: 13 June 2019

Procedure Examples

Name Description

Flame can use Windows Authentication Packages for persistence.[2]


Mitigation Description
Privileged Process Integrity

Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012 R2, and later versions, may make LSA run as a Protected Process Light (PPL) by setting the Registry key HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\RunAsPPL, which requires all DLLs loaded by LSA to be signed by Microsoft.


Monitor the Registry for changes to the LSA Registry keys. Monitor the LSA process for DLL loads. Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2 may generate events when unsigned DLLs try to load into the LSA by setting the Registry key HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Image File Execution Options\LSASS.exe with AuditLevel = 8. [3] [4]