Windows Admin Shares

Windows systems have hidden network shares that are accessible only to administrators and provide the ability for remote file copy and other administrative functions. Example network shares include C$, ADMIN$, and IPC$.

Adversaries may use this technique in conjunction with administrator-level Valid Accounts to remotely access a networked system over server message block (SMB) [1] to interact with systems using remote procedure calls (RPCs), [2] transfer files, and run transferred binaries through remote Execution. Example execution techniques that rely on authenticated sessions over SMB/RPC are Scheduled Task, Service Execution, and Windows Management Instrumentation. Adversaries can also use NTLM hashes to access administrator shares on systems with Pass the Hash and certain configuration and patch levels. [3]

The Net utility can be used to connect to Windows admin shares on remote systems using net use commands with valid credentials. [4]

ID: T1077
Tactic: Lateral Movement
Platform: Windows
System Requirements: File and printer sharing over SMB enabled; Host/network firewalls not blocking SMB ports between source and destination; Use of domain account in administrator group on remote system or default system admin account.
Permissions Required: Administrator
Data Sources: Process use of network, Authentication logs, Process monitoring, Process command-line parameters
CAPEC ID: CAPEC-561
Version: 1.1

Procedure Examples

Name Description
APT3

APT3 will copy files over to Windows Admin Shares (like ADMIN$) as part of lateral movement.[27]

APT32

APT32 used Net to use Windows' hidden network shares to copy their tools to remote machines for execution.[28]

BlackEnergy

BlackEnergy has run a plug-in on a victim to spread through the local network by using PsExec and accessing admin shares.[8]

Cobalt Strike

Cobalt Strike can use Window admin shares (C$ and ADMIN$) for lateral movement.[6]

Deep Panda

Deep Panda uses net.exe to connect to network shares using net use commands with compromised credentials.[19]

Duqu

Adversaries can instruct Duqu to spread laterally by copying itself to shares it has enumerated and for which it has obtained legitimate credentials (via keylogging or other means). The remote host is then infected by using the compromised credentials to schedule a task on remote machines that executes the malware.[9]

Emotet

Emotet leverages the Admin$ share for lateral movement once the local admin password has been brute forced. [18]

FIN8

FIN8 has attempted to map to C$ on enumerated hosts to test the scope of their current credentials/context.[24]

Ke3chang

Ke3chang actors have been known to copy files to the network shares of other computers to move laterally.[20][21]

Kwampirs

Kwampirs copies itself over network shares to move laterally on a victim network.[13]

Lazarus Group

Lazarus Group malware SierraAlfa accesses the ADMIN$ share via SMB to conduct lateral movement.[22][23]

Net

Lateral movement can be done with Net through net use commands to connect to the on remote systems.[7]

Net Crawler

Net Crawler uses Windows admin shares to establish authenticated sessions to remote systems over SMB as part of lateral movement.[14]

NotPetya

NotPetya can use PsExec, which interacts with the ADMIN$ network share to execute commands on remote systems.[16][17][5]

Olympic Destroyer

Olympic Destroyer uses PsExec to interact with the ADMIN$ network share to execute commands on remote systems.[15][5]

Orangeworm

Orangeworm has copied its backdoor across open network shares, including ADMIN$, C$WINDOWS, D$WINDOWS, and E$WINDOWS.[13]

PsExec

PsExec, a tool that has been used by adversaries, writes programs to the ADMIN$ network share to execute commands on remote systems.[5]

Regin

The Regin malware platform can use Windows admin shares to move laterally.[11]

Shamoon

Shamoon accesses network share(s), enables share access to the target device, copies an executable payload to the target system, and uses a Scheduled Task to execute the malware.[10]

Threat Group-1314

Threat Group-1314 actors mapped network drives using net use.[26]

Turla

Turla used net use commands to connect to lateral systems within a network.[25]

zwShell

zwShell has been copied over network shares to move laterally.[12]

Mitigations

Mitigation Description
Password Policies

Do not reuse local administrator account passwords across systems. Ensure password complexity and uniqueness such that the passwords cannot be cracked or guessed.

Privileged Account Management

Deny remote use of local admin credentials to log into systems. Do not allow domain user accounts to be in the local Administrators group multiple systems.

Detection

Ensure that proper logging of accounts used to log into systems is turned on and centrally collected. Windows logging is able to collect success/failure for accounts that may be used to move laterally and can be collected using tools such as Windows Event Forwarding. [29] [30] Monitor remote login events and associated SMB activity for file transfers and remote process execution. Monitor the actions of remote users who connect to administrative shares. Monitor for use of tools and commands to connect to remote shares, such as Net, on the command-line interface and Discovery techniques that could be used to find remotely accessible systems.[31]

References

  1. Wikipedia. (2016, June 12). Server Message Block. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  2. Microsoft. (2003, March 28). What Is RPC?. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
  3. Microsoft. (n.d.). How to create and delete hidden or administrative shares on client computers. Retrieved November 20, 2014.
  4. Microsoft. (n.d.). Net Use. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
  5. Russinovich, M. (2004, June 28). PsExec. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
  6. Cobalt Strike. (2017, December 8). Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
  7. Savill, J. (1999, March 4). Net.exe reference. Retrieved September 22, 2015.
  8. Baumgartner, K. and Garnaeva, M.. (2014, November 3). BE2 custom plugins, router abuse, and target profiles. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
  9. Symantec Security Response. (2011, November). W32.Duqu: The precursor to the next Stuxnet. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  10. FireEye. (2016, November 30). FireEye Responds to Wave of Destructive Cyber Attacks in Gulf Region. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
  11. Kaspersky Lab's Global Research and Analysis Team. (2014, November 24). THE REGIN PLATFORM NATION-STATE OWNAGE OF GSM NETWORKS. Retrieved December 1, 2014.
  12. McAfee® Foundstone® Professional Services and McAfee Labs™. (2011, February 10). Global Energy Cyberattacks: “Night Dragon”. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  13. Symantec Security Response Attack Investigation Team. (2018, April 23). New Orangeworm attack group targets the healthcare sector in the U.S., Europe, and Asia. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
  14. Cylance. (2014, December). Operation Cleaver. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  15. Mercer, W. and Rascagneres, P. (2018, February 12). Olympic Destroyer Takes Aim At Winter Olympics. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  16. Chiu, A. (2016, June 27). New Ransomware Variant "Nyetya" Compromises Systems Worldwide. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
  1. US-CERT. (2017, July 1). Alert (TA17-181A): Petya Ransomware. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  2. Smith, A.. (2017, December 22). Protect your network from Emotet Trojan with Malwarebytes Endpoint Security. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
  3. Alperovitch, D. (2014, July 7). Deep in Thought: Chinese Targeting of National Security Think Tanks. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
  4. Villeneuve, N., Bennett, J. T., Moran, N., Haq, T., Scott, M., & Geers, K. (2014). OPERATION “KE3CHANG”: Targeted Attacks Against Ministries of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
  5. Smallridge, R. (2018, March 10). APT15 is alive and strong: An analysis of RoyalCli and RoyalDNS. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
  6. Novetta Threat Research Group. (2016, February 24). Operation Blockbuster: Unraveling the Long Thread of the Sony Attack. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  7. Novetta Threat Research Group. (2016, February 24). Operation Blockbuster: Remote Administration Tools & Content Staging Malware Report. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
  8. Elovitz, S. & Ahl, I. (2016, August 18). Know Your Enemy: New Financially-Motivated & Spear-Phishing Group. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  9. Kaspersky Lab's Global Research and Analysis Team. (2014, August 7). The Epic Turla Operation: Solving some of the mysteries of Snake/Uroburos. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
  10. Dell SecureWorks Counter Threat Unit Special Operations Team. (2015, May 28). Living off the Land. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  11. Symantec Security Response. (2016, September 6). Buckeye cyberespionage group shifts gaze from US to Hong Kong. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
  12. Dahan, A. (2017). Operation Cobalt Kitty. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
  13. Payne, J. (2015, November 26). Tracking Lateral Movement Part One - Special Groups and Specific Service Accounts. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
  14. Payne, J. (2015, November 23). Monitoring what matters - Windows Event Forwarding for everyone (even if you already have a SIEM.). Retrieved February 1, 2016.
  15. French, D. (2018, September 30). Detecting Lateral Movement Using Sysmon and Splunk. Retrieved October 11, 2019.