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Modify Existing Service

Windows service configuration information, including the file path to the service's executable or recovery programs/commands, is stored in the Registry. Service configurations can be modified using utilities such as sc.exe and Reg.

Adversaries can modify an existing service to persist malware on a system by using system utilities or by using custom tools to interact with the Windows API. Use of existing services is a type of Masquerading that may make detection analysis more challenging. Modifying existing services may interrupt their functionality or may enable services that are disabled or otherwise not commonly used.

Adversaries may also intentionally corrupt or kill services to execute malicious recovery programs/commands. [1] [2]

ID: T1031

Tactic: Persistence

Platform:  Windows

Permissions Required:  Administrator, SYSTEM

Data Sources:  Windows Registry, File monitoring, Process monitoring, Process command-line parameters

CAPEC ID:  CAPEC-551

Contributors:  Travis Smith, Tripwire, Matthew Demaske, Adaptforward

Version: 1.0

Examples

NameDescription
APT19

An APT19 Port 22 malware variant registers itself as a service.[3]

Bankshot

Bankshot can terminate a specific process by its process id.[4][5]

BBSRAT

BBSRAT can modify service configurations.[6]

Honeybee

Honeybee has batch files that modify the system service COMSysApp to load a malicious DLL.[7]

PoisonIvy

PoisonIvy creates a Registry entry modifying the Logical Disk Manager service to point to a malicious DLL dropped to disk.[8]

PowerSploit

PowerSploit contains a collection of Privesc-PowerUp modules that can discover and replace/modify service binaries, paths, and configs.[9][10]

TYPEFRAME

TYPEFRAME can delete services from the victim’s machine.[11]

Volgmer

Volgmer installs a copy of itself in a randomly selected service, then overwrites the ServiceDLL entry in the service's Registry entry.[12]

Mitigation

Use auditing tools capable of detecting privilege and service abuse opportunities on systems within an enterprise and correct them. Limit privileges of user accounts and groups so that only authorized administrators can interact with service changes and service configurations. Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain the PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for Privilege Escalation weaknesses. [13]

Identify and block potentially malicious software that may be executed through service abuse by using whitelisting [14] tools like AppLocker [15] [16] that are capable of auditing and/or blocking unknown programs.

Detection

Look for changes to service Registry entries that do not correlate with known software, patch cycles, etc. Changes to the binary path and the service startup type changed from manual or disabled to automatic, if it does not typically do so, may be suspicious. Tools such as Sysinternals Autoruns may also be used to detect system service changes that could be attempts at persistence. [17]

Service information is stored in the Registry at HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services.

Command-line invocation of tools capable of modifying services may be unusual, depending on how systems are typically used in a particular environment. Collect service utility execution and service binary path arguments used for analysis. Service binary paths may even be changed to execute cmd commands or scripts.

Look for abnormal process call trees from known services and for execution of other commands that could relate to Discovery or other adversary techniques. Services may also be modified through Windows system management tools such as Windows Management Instrumentation and PowerShell, so additional logging may need to be configured to gather the appropriate data.

References